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the speed or frequency with which an event or circumstance occurs per unit of time, population, or other standard of comparison.
adjusted rate a fictitious summary rate statistically adjusted to remove the effect of a variable, such as age or sex, to permit unbiased comparison between groups having different compositions with respect to these variables. See also crude rate and specific rate.
attack rate in the analysis of acute outbreaks of disease, the proportion of persons who are exposed to the disease during the outbreak who do become ill.
basal metabolic rate an expression of the rate at which oxygen is utilized in a fasting subject at complete rest as a percentage of a value established as normal for such a subject. Abbreviated BMR.
birth rate the number of live births in a geographic area in a defined period, usually one year, relative to some specified population. For the crude birth rate, it is the average total population or the midyear population in the area during the period. Specific birth rates for subsets of the population may also be calculated, for example, an age-specific birth rate is limited to the population of females of a defined age range.
case fatality rate the number of deaths due to a specific disease as compared to the total number of cases of the disease.
crude rate one giving the total number of events occurring in an entire population over a period of time, without reference to any of the individuals or subgroups within the population. See also adjusted rate and specific rate.
death rate the number of deaths in a certain period of time divided by the total of a given population. The crude death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths in a geographic area in one year divided by the average population in the area during the year. The age-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths occurring in a specified age group to the average population of that group. The cause-specific death rate is the ratio of the number of deaths due to a specified cause to the average total population. Called also mortality rate.
DEF rate an expression of dental caries experienced in primary teeth, calculated by adding number of those requiring filling (D), decayed teeth requiring extraction (E), and those that have already been successfully filled (F); missing primary teeth are not included in the calculation.
DMF rate an expression of the condition of the permanent teeth based on the number of teeth decayed, missing (or indicated for removal), and filled or bearing restorations. It is calculated by adding the number of carious permanent teeth requiring filling (D), carious ones requiring extraction (Mr), ones previously extracted because of caries (Mp), and permanent teeth (F).
dose rate the amount of any therapeutic agent administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) see erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
fatality rate the death rate in a specific group of persons simultaneously affected by some event or circumstances, such as a natural disaster.
fertility rate a measure of fertility in a defined population over a specified period of time, usually one year; particularly the general fertility rate, but also including more specific rates such as those for females of a given parity or a particular age range or that describing the completed rate for females who have finished childbearing.
fetal death rate the ratio of the number of fetal deaths in one year to the total number of both live births and fetal deaths in that year.
five-year survival rate an expression of the number of survivors with no trace of a given disease five years after each has been diagnosed or treated for the disease.
flow rate flow (def. 2).
forced expiratory flow rate forced expiratory flow.
general fertility rate the most widely used measure of fertility; the number of live births in a geographic area in a year per 1000 women of childbearing age, which is usually defined as age 15 to 44 years.
glomerular filtration rate an expression of the quantity of glomerular filtrate formed each minute in the nephrons of both kidneys, calculated by measuring the clearance of specific substances, e.g., inulin or creatinine.
growth rate an expression of the increase in size of an organic object per unit of time.
heart rate the number of contractions of the cardiac ventricles per unit of time (usually per minute).
incidence rate the risk of developing a particular disease during a given period of time; the numerator of the rate is the number of new cases during the specified time period and the denominator is the population at risk during the period. Compare prevalence r.
infant mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than one year of age to the number of live births in that year.
intrinsic rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the heart rate unaided by an artificial pacemaker, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). See also cycle length.
maternal mortality rate a rate in which the numerator is the number of maternal deaths ascribed to puerperal causes in one year; the number of live births in that year is often used as the denominator, although to make a true rate the denominator should be the number of pregnancies (live births plus fetal deaths). Called also puerperal mortality rate.
maximal expiratory flow rate (MEFR) maximal expiratory flow.
maximal midexpiratory flow rate (MMFR) maximal midexpiratory flow.
mendelian rate an expression of the numerical relations of the occurrence of distinctly contrasted mendelian characteristics in succeeding generations of hybrid offspring.
metabolic rate an expression of the amount of oxygen consumed by the body cells.
mortality rate death rate.
neonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in one year of children less than 28 days of age to the number of live births in that year.
paced rate in cardiac pacing terminology, the rate of pulses of an artificial pacemaker, expressed as pulses per minute (ppm). See also cycle length.
perinatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of the sum of fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) and deaths of infants less than 7 days of age in one time period and population to the sum of the number of live births and fetal deaths after 28 or more weeks of gestation (stillbirths) in that same time period and population.
postneonatal mortality rate the ratio of the number of deaths in a given year of children between the 28th day of life and the first birthday relative to the difference between the number of the live births and neonatal deaths in that year; the denominator is sometimes simplified, less correctly, to the number of live births. The ratio is sometimes approximated as the difference between the infant mortality rate and the neonatal mortality rate.
prevalence rate the number of people in a population who have a disease at a given time; the numerator is the number of existing cases of disease at a specified time and the denominator is the total population. Time may be a point or a defined interval, and is traditionally the former if unspecified. Compare incidence r.
puerperal mortality rate maternal mortality r.
pulse rate the rate of the pulse, measured as number of pulsations in an artery per unit of time; normally between 60 and 80 per minute in an adult.
respiration rate the number of inhalations and exhalations per unit of time, usually measured by observation of chest movements and averaging 16 to 20 per minute in an adult.
sedimentation rate the rate at which a sediment is deposited in a given volume of solution, especially when subjected to the action of a centrifuge; see also erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
slew rate in cardiac pacing, the rate, expressed in units of mV/msec, at which an R wave reaches peak amplitude; it represents the maximum rate of change of amplifier output voltage.
specific rate a rate that applies to a specific demographic subgroup, e.g., individuals of a specific age, sex, or race, giving the total number of events in relation only to that subgroup. See also adjusted rate and crude rate.
stillbirth rate fetal death rate.
an estimate of the proportion of the population that dies during a specified period, usually a year; the numerator is the number of people dying, the denominator is the number in the population, usually an estimate of the number at the midperiod.
mortality rateThe frequency of death in a defined population during a specified time interval; the per capita death rate in a population; the reciprocal of the population life expectancy.
mortality rateEpidemiology The frequency of death in a defined population during a specified time interval; the per capita death rate in a population; the reciprocal of the population life expectancy. See Fetal mortality rate–MR, Infant MR, Maternal MR, Neonatal MR, Postneonatal MR.
death rate(deth rāt)
rate(rat) [L. rata, calculated]
The speed or frequency of occurrence of an event, usually expressed with respect to time or some other known standard.
In radiology, the speed with which medical images are recorded, usually expressed in images per second.
The rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease.
basal metabolic rateAbbreviation: BMR
The metabolic rate as measured 12 hr after eating, after a restful sleep, with no exercise or activity preceding testing, with elimination of emotional excitement, and at a comfortable temperature. It is usually expressed in terms of kilocalories per square meter of body surface per hour. It increases, for example, in hyperthyroidism. Synonym: resting energy expenditure
baseline fetal heart rateAbbreviation: FHR
The average range of beats per minute recorded within a 10-min time frame. The normal range is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
The number of live births per 1000 in the population in a given year.
case rateMorbidity rate.
case fatality rate
The percentage of individuals afflicted with an illness who die as a result of it.
The frequency with which a gene will be inherited or expressed by identical or fraternal twins.
The number of deaths in a specified population, usually expressed per 100,000 population over a given period, usually 1 year. Synonym: death-to-case ratio; mortality rate
In assisted reproduction technology, the number of newborn deliveries achieved in every one hundred follicular aspirations, embryo transfers, or stimulated cycles.
The quantity of medicine or radiation administered per unit of time.
erythrocyte sedimentation rateAbbreviation: ESR
See: sedimentation rate
The rate of occurrence of negative test results in those who have the attribute or disease for which they are being tested.
The rate of occurrence of positive test results in those who do not have the attribute or disease for which they are being tested.
The number of births per year per 1000 women between ages 15 and 44 in a given population.
fetal mortality rate
The number of fetal deaths per 1000 live births, usually per year.
The rate at which an individual, tissue, or organ grows over time.
heart rateAbbreviation: HR
The number of heartbeats per unit of time, usually expressed or written as number per minute. A normal resting heart rate for an adult is 60–100 beats per minute.
infant mortality rate
The number of deaths per year of live-born infants less than 1 year of age divided by the number of live births in the same year. This value is usually expressed as deaths per 100,000 live births.See: neonatal mortality rate; perinatal mortality rate
The speed of administration of a solution in mL/hr.
CAUTION!It is calculated by the following formula: Rate = (Dose × 60 × Body weight)/Concentration, in which the dose is in mcg/kg/min; 60 is in min/hr; weight is in kg; and the concentration of the substance in solution is in mcg/mL.
maternal mortality rate
The number of maternal deaths in 1 year from puerperal causes (such as those associated with pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium) within 42 days after delivery divided by the number of live births in that same year. This value is usually expressed as deaths per 100,000 live births. See: illustration
maximum midexpiratory flow rateAbbreviation: MMFR
The average airflow during the middle half of a forced vital capacity effort.
The rate of utilization of energy. This is usually measured at a time when the subject is completely at rest and in a fasting state. Energy used is calculated from the amount of oxygen used during the test.See: basal metabolic rate; basal metabolism
The number of cases per year of certain diseases in relation to the size of the population in which they occur. Synonym: case rate
mortality rateDeath rate.
neonatal mortality rate
The number of deaths in 1 year of infants aged 0 to 28 days divided by the number of live births in that same year.See: maternal mortality rate; perinatal mortality rate
peak expiratory flow rate
The maximum rate of exhalation during a forced expiration, measured in liters per second or liters per minute. It is used as a test of airway obstruction.
perinatal mortality rate
The number of stillbirths (in which the gestation period was 28 weeks or more) in the first 7 days of life divided by the number of live births plus stillbirths in the same year. This value is usually expressed as deaths per 100,000 live births plus stillbirths.See: infant mortality rate; neonatal mortality rate
periodontal disease rateSee: periodontal (Ramfjord) index
The number of heartbeats per unit of time that can be detected by palpating any accessible artery.
The number of breaths per unit of time.
sedimentation rateAbbreviation: ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
A nonspecific laboratory test used as a marker of inflammation. In this test the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of unclotted blood is measured. Blood to which an anticoagulant has been added is placed in a long, narrow tube, and the distance the red cells fall in 1 hr is the ESR. Normally it is less than 10 mm/hr in men and slightly higher in women.
The speed at which the cells settle depends on how many red blood cells clump together. Clumping is increased by the presence of acute-phase proteins released during inflammation.
specific absorption rate
The rate at which electromagnetic energy is absorbed by a kilogram of tissue, usually expressed as the heat absorbed by the tissue, or as the power absorbed per unit of mass.
ventilation rateAbbreviation: VR
The number of breaths per minute.
mortality rateDeath rate. The ratio of the total number of deaths from one or any cause, in a year, to the number of people in the population. Crude mortality is the number of deaths in a year per thousand total population. The age-specified mortality rate is the number of deaths occurring in a year in people of a particular age or in a particular age-range. See also INFANT MORTALITY.
- the percentage of a population dying in a year.
- the ratio of the number of human deaths per 1000 of population.