Mollusks as a natural reservoir of morbilliviruses
. Dokl Biol Sci.
Characterization of morbilliviruses
isolated from dolphins and porpoises in Europe.
implicated in bottlenose dolphin epizootics.
The immune suppression is not only observed during natural infections but also after vaccination with attenuated strains of Morbilliviruses
(Hussey et al.
Several strains of morbilliviruses
have been associated with illness and death in marine mammals (50).
This variation was previously reported in other related morbilliviruses
(13) and does not control any change in the tertiary structure of H antigen, as determined by using the SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.
(segmented or nonsegmented) containing unique rinderpest virus nucleic acid or amino acid sequences are considered to be rinderpest virus.
As more sequence data become available for PPRV and the other morbilliviruses
, ancestral origins of each virus and intraspecies differentiation might become more clear.
CeMV is more closely related to ruminant morbilliviruses
and human measles virus than to canine and phocine distemper viruses (1,2).
Serologic surveys indicate that morbilliviruses
infect marine mammals worldwide (5); however, only 1 fatal case in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been confirmed in the Southern Hemisphere (in the southwestern Pacific Ocean) (6).
Three cetacean morbilliviruses
have been identified: porpoise morbillivirus, isolated from harbor porpoises that died along the coast of Ireland (6); dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), first identified in striped dolphins from the Mediterranean Sea (2); and pilot whale morbillivirus, isolated from a long-finned pilot whale stranded in New Jersey, USA (7).
can switch hosts, and new ecologic niches created by the eradication of rinderpest may provide opportunities for PPR emergence in new hosts (4,5).