morbilli


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to morbilli: Morbillivirus, incomplete paralysis

measles

 [me´z'lz]
a highly contagious illness caused by a virus; it is usually a childhood disease but can be contracted at any age. Epidemics usually recur every 2 or 3 years and are most common in the winter and spring. In spite of the availability of a vaccine and intensive effort on the part of public health personnel to eradicate the disease, measles continues to occur in the United States. Called also rubeola.
Cause. The virus that causes measles is spread by droplet infection and can also be picked up by touching an article, such as a handkerchief, that an infected person has recently used. The incubation period is usually 11 days, although it may be as few as 9 or as many as 14. The patient can transmit the disease from 3 or 4 days before the rash appears until the rash begins to fade, a total of about 7 or 8 days. One attack of measles usually gives lifetime immunity to rubeola, although not to German measles (rubella), a somewhat similar disease.
Symptoms. Measles symptoms generally appear in two stages. In the first stage the patient feels tired and uncomfortable, and may have a running nose, a cough, a slight fever, and pains in the head and back. The eyes may become reddened and sensitive to light. The fever rises a little each day.

The second stage begins at the end of the third or beginning of the fourth day. The patient's temperature is generally between 38° and 40°C (103° and 104°F). Koplik's spots, small white dots like grains of salt surrounded by inflamed areas, can often be seen on the gums and the inside of the cheeks. A rash appears, starting at the hairline and behind the ears and spreading downward, covering the body in about 36 hours. At first the rash consists of separate pink spots, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, but later some of the spots may run together, giving the patient a blotchy look. The fever usually subsides after the rash has spread. The rash turns brownish and fades after 3 or 4 days.

The most serious complication of rubeola is encephalitis, which occurs in about 0.1 per cent of all cases and is responsible for an estimated 600 cases of mental retardation each year. Other complications include pneumonia, otitis media, and mastoiditis.
Patient Care. The patient should be kept in bed as long as the rash and fever continue, and should get as much rest as possible. Aspirin, nose drops, and cough medicine may be prescribed during this stage. Water and fluids can be given for fever. The sickroom should be well ventilated and fairly warm. If the patient's eyes are sensitive to light, strong sunlight should be kept out of the room. The rash may itch a great deal and prevent the patient from resting. If so, calamine lotion, cornstarch solution, or plain cool water will afford some relief. If the itching continues, antihistamine drugs may be necessary.

Measles can greatly lower resistance to other infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and ear infection. If the patient's temperature remains high for more than 2 days after the rash fades, or if he complains of pain in the ear, throat, chest, or abdomen, medical attention should be obtained without delay.

The person with measles should be placed under respiratory precautions until the fifth day of the rash. Anyone with a cold or cough should be kept away from the patient because another infection can cause serious complications. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend continuing respiratory isolation precautions for 4 days after start of the rash, except in immunocompromised patients, with whom precautions should be maintained for the duration of the illness.
Prevention. The first measles vaccine was developed and made available in the early 1960s. It consisted of killed virus and is now known to have conferred little or no immunity and, in addition, made the person susceptible to the development of atypical measles when exposed to the disease. Children who received this type of vaccine should be given the newer live vaccine in order to be protected against the disease. The live measles virus vaccine confers lifelong immunity in 95 per cent of those who receive potent vaccine. A 12 to 20 per cent potency failure can occur when the vaccine is not stored and refrigerated properly.

The live vaccine usually is given when the child is 15 months of age. Until then the child is protected by the temporary immunity acquired from its mother. If the vaccine is given before 15 months, the temporary immunity of the mother may prevent active immunity from taking place in the child. Children must be given the vaccine before exposure to measles, or within 48 hours after exposure; otherwise the vaccine is ineffective. If the vaccine cannot be given to a child exposed to measles, measles immune globulin (MIG) or the standard immune serum globulin is given; a waiting period of 3 months is then necessary before the measles vaccine is given. The vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy.
German measles (three-day measles) rubella.

mea·sles

(mē'zĕlz),
1. An acute exanthematous disease, caused by measles virus (genus Morbillivirus), a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, and marked by fever and other constitutional disturbances, a catarrhal inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes, and a generalized dusky red maculopapular eruption; the eruption occurs early on the buccal mucous membrane in the form of Koplik spots, a manifestation useful in early diagnosis; average incubation period is from 10-12 days. Recovery is usually rapid, but respiratory complications and otitis media caused by secondary bacterial infections are common. Encephalitis occurs rarely. Subacute sclerosing parencephalitis may occur later and is associated with chronic infection. Synonym(s): morbilli
2. A disease of swine caused by the presence of Cysticercus cellulosae, the measle or larva of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.
3. A disease of cattle caused by the presence of Cysticercus bovis, the measle or larva of T. saginata, the beef tapeworm of humans.
Synonym(s): first disease
[D. maselen]

morbilli

/mor·bil·li/ (mor-bil´i) [L.] measles.

morbilli

See measles.

mea·sles

(mē'zĕlz)
1. An acute exanthematous disease, caused by measles virus and marked by fever and other constitutional disturbances, a catarrhal inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes, and a generalized maculopapular eruption of a dusky red color; the eruption occurs early on the buccal mucous membrane in the form of Koplik spots; incubation period is 10-12 days.
Synonym(s): morbilli, rubeola.
2. A disease of swine caused by the presence of Cysticercus cellulosae, the measle or larva of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm.
3. A disease of cattle caused by the presence of C. bovis, the measle or larva of T. saginata, the beef tapeworm.
[D. maselen]

mea·sles, mumps, and ru·bel·la (MMR) vaccine

(mēz'elz mŭmps rū-bel'ă vak-sēn')
Combination of live attenuated forms of these viruses in an aqueous suspension.

morbilli

MEASLES.

mea·sles

(mē'zĕlz)
An acute exanthematous disease, caused by measles virus, marked by fever and other constitutional disturbances, catarrhal inflammation of respiratory mucous membranes, and a generalized dusky red maculopapular eruption. Eruption occurs early on buccal mucous membrane in the form of Koplik spots, a manifestation useful in early diagnosis.
Synonym(s): morbilli.
[D. maselen]
References in periodicals archive ?
That was taken to include morbilli virus, leaving the cause of death most likely to have been heart failure caused by acute trauma not disassociated with the stress of air travel.
The latter studies were devoted to infections with HIV-1 [5, 6], morbilli [7], and meningitis with afebrile convulsions [8], reviewed in a recent article [9].
Paramyxoviruscs of the morbilli group in the wild hedgehog Erinaceus eumpeus.