In mammalian spinal reflexes, large-diameter afferent fibers from muscle spindles (Ia) makes monosynaptic
facilitation to the homonymous and synergist muscles, which is the main constituent of stretch reflex, and disynaptic inhibition to the antagonistic muscles (Fig.
Muscle groups, whether distal and proximal muscles, differ in the size of cortical representation, the extent of monosynaptic
corticospinal projection (Pyndt et al., 2003), and the relative contribution of motor unit recruitment and modulation of discharge rate to the gradation of muscle force (Kukulka and Clamann, 1981).
Loss of inhibitory control from the brain via the spinal cord leads to uninhibited excitation of the monosynaptic
spinal reflex arc.
Depending on the number of synapses interposed on the trajectory reflex arc, reflexes are monosynaptic
reflexes are hyperactive, H-reflex and reciprocal inhibition are sustained.
pathways provide an extremely rapid reflex feedback system and are the basis for the muscle stretch reflex.
H-reflex is a monosynaptic
reflex that can show the changes of MN recruitment.
(34) The H-reflex is produced when action potentials that travel proximally along sensory fibers enter the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and stimulate the monosynaptic
reflex arc (Fig.
If the trunk and pelvis were indeed responsible for the triggering of the postural responses, one may expect segmental reflexes from the lumbar (ES muscle) to occur first through fast conducting monosynaptic
stretch reflexes to maintain posture.
When that circuit, known as the monosynaptic
circuit, was disrupted, the animals did not learn to fear the tone.
TMS has provided the first concrete evidence in humans of the existence of direct monosynaptic
connections from the motor cortex to spinal motor neurons.
measures of output of a motoneuron pool during monosynaptic