Indeed, the double projection of the LSW combines derivational and inflectional derivation, while the monostratal
representation that displays all the relevant elements and features in a single step avoids the need for empty elements, such as the historical formative -en- which is no longer present in the suffix -a.
We claim that the very abstract and morpheme-based monostratal
ReALIS approach to grammar, relying on the four internal functions [sigma], [alpha], [lambda] and [kappa] (discussed above) and a complex system of ranked lexical requirements (which is nearly an apparatus similar to those known from optimality theories ), neutralizes the difference between languages where the meaning of a sentence can primarily be calculated on the basis of words in a strict order and languages where what are relevant to this calculation are basically morphemes within words and affixes (e.g.
Whereas tree diagrams constitute monostratal
representations of the kind adopted by functional theories of language, derivational chains like the ones shown in (9) are governed by the principle of steplike morphological representation.
Feature-decomposition approaches to argument realization like LFG's linking theory manage to capture complex generalizations about argument realization, and also the reasons behind systematic mismatches between semantic role and grammatical function (or morphological case), in a monostratal
RRG is a monostratal
theory, and therefore analyses involving underlying syntactic representations and movement rules are excluded in principle.
The level theory, in particular the idea that morphemes are stored in an unpronounceable form (unpronounceable, since stress and syllable boundaries are not marked), goes against the monostratal
approach that cognitive linguists (and others) have pursued in the study of syntax (Langacker, 1987).
As for content proper, the sideswipes at Optimality Theory on page 135 and at monostratal
frameworks on page 155 are unwarranted.
treatment of it extraposition without lexical rules.