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Subfamily monophyly.--On the surface, it would appear that Gomphocerinae* is not monophyletic in terms of representing an uninterrupted subset of gomphocerine grasshoppers.
Within the molgulid ascidians, there are two monophyletic clades of the species that have been extensively studied, the "Woods Hole" clade and the "Roscovita" clade (1).
This character suggests that the subgenera Eleutherodactylus and Euhyas are not monophyletic.
- Three types of constraint analyses were done with heuristic searches, all using the complete Vidua dataset: (1) paradise whydah relationships constrained to match the topology of their Pytilia hosts; (2) each individual indigobird included as a taxon on the Vidua tree and constrained such that each species in S-C Africa was monophyletic; and (3) each individual indigobird included as a taxon on the Vidua tree and constrained such that each species in Cameroon and each song form of V.
Most Siphocampylus and all Centropogon species together form a monophyletic group although the two genera are paraphyletic (Knox et al., 2008; Timmermann, Antonelli & Gustafsson, unpublished data).
Cyperaceae are resolved as monophyletic (MP bootstrap [BP] 100%, ML bootstrap [BS] 100%, BI posterior probability [PP] 1.00).
As a monophyletic group, we conjectured that Ptychobarbus genus might be a transitional group between highly specialized and specialized grade schizothoracine fishes.
Having made this discovery, the team now wants to understand whether angiosperms are either monophyletic -- which would mean Nanjinganthus represents a stem group giving rise to all later species -- or polyphyletic, whereby Nanjinganthus represents an evolutionary dead end and has little to do with many later species.
(2014, 2016) claim that although the complexes and subcomplexes show no taxonomic validity they must be monophyletic groups.