The effects are reproduced by 8-bromo-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
and suppressed in the presence of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor KT-5823.
Endothelial cells can produce nitric oxide (NO) by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which causes vascular relaxation through guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
(cGMP) synthesis by the activation of guanylate cyclase within the smooth muscle cells (Ignarro 1989).
The researchers focused on two key regulators of lipid (fat) metabolism that are found in many human cells as well: SREBP (sterol regulatory element-binding protein) that stimulates synthesis of fatty acids in the liver, and AMPK (adenosine monophosphate
kinase) that turns SREBP on and off.
AMPK is activated by an increase in the ratio of adenosine monophosphate
(AMP) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and thereby plays a key role of regulating energy metabolism in eukaryotic cells.
Sildenafil inhibits PDE5 in the smooth muscle of the pulmonary vasculature, promoting accumulation of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate
, which can promote vasodilation of the pulmonary vascular bed.
Known as cyclic guanosine monophosphate
, or cGMP, the chemical may also play a role in the normal control of any mammal's digestive system.
These negative effects may result from the effect of antidepressants on cyclic adenosine monophosphate
(cAMP), they said.
15 April 2010 - US biopharmaceutical company Idenix Pharmaceuticals Inc (NASDAQ: IDIX) reported today interim data from a 14-day, Phase IIa clinical trial evaluating IDX184, a novel liver-targeted nucleotide prodrug of 2'-methyl guanosine monophosphate
, in HCV-infected patients.
MD-1100 or linaclotide, a potent guanylate cyclase-C agonist that acts luminally to increase the production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate
in human colon cells, is heading into phase II trials for both IBS with constipation and chronic constipation.
AZT and its monophosphate
derivative, AZTMP, are ideal candidates against which antibodies could be raised.
Caffeine, which increases cyclic adenosine monophosphate
, improves endurance.
The mammalian equivalents of these molecules are the sugar mannose and a signaling compound called cyclic adenosine monophosphate