Dendritic cells also are mononuclear phagocytes
derived from monocytes.
represent a cell lineage consisting of monoblasts, promonocytes, monocytes, and macrophages.
Langevoort, "The mononuclear phagocyte
system: a new classification of macrophages, monocytes, and their precursor cells," Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol.
Furthermore, ILCs were recently described to be involved in modulating immune responses, by interacting with CD4+ T cells and mononuclear phagocytes
in the mouse intestine.
Tissue damage in cattle infected with Theileria annulata accompanied by metastasis of cytokine-producing, schizont-infected mononuclear phagocytes
. J Comp Pathol 120: 39-57.
Until recently, phenotyping macrophages and other related mononuclear phagocytes
, including the many dendritic cells (DCs) subtypes, with cell surface markers such as CD11b, CD68, macrophage antigen-2, and F4/80, has been the mainstay of macrophage characterization.
The liver is thought to be the predominant source of AAT in the blood and tissues, with a somewhat lesser contribution from circulating and tissue mononuclear phagocytes
. In some forms of AAT deficiency, liver cells have reduced secretion of the abnormal AAT.
Cohn, "The origin and kinetics of mononuclear phagocytes
," The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
Objective: "Integrated study of skin resident Memory T cells and dermal mononuclear phagocytes
in the fight against PATHogens"
Similarly Ettinger and Feldman, (2000) reported that after an incubation period of 8-20 days, the organism multiplies within circulating mononuclear cells and the mononuclear phagocytes
within liver, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes and other predilection organs.
Coronaviruses appear to enter mononuclear phagocytes
by means of the plasma membrane without marked involvement of phagocytic or endosomal pathways (28).
As sCD163 is shed only from mononuclear phagocytes
, it is a specific activation marker for these cells.