However, microscopy failed to detect malaria parasites in 2 samples in which PCR detected it, and 1 infection determined to be mixed by PCR was detected as monoinfection
 Unfortunately, although tenofovir and lamivudine/ emtricitabine are widely available as part of ART, these nucleotide analogues are not always accessible to patients with HBV monoinfection
in many SSA countries.
Six groups were categorized according to the results (positive or negative) for the following HIV-1 and HTLV-1/-2 serological assays: HCV monoinfection
(n = 548); HCV/HIV-1 (n = 41), HCV/HTLV-1 (n = 16), HCV/HTLV-2 (n = 8), HCV/HIV/HTLV-1 (n = 4), and HCV/HIV/HTLV-2 co-infection (n = 5).
Efficacy and safety of 8 wks versus 12 wks of treatment with grazoprevir (MK-5172) and elbasvir (MK-8742) with or without ribavirin in patients with HCV GT1 monoinfection
and HIV/HCV coinfection (C-WORTHY): a randomised, open-label phase 2 trial.
of influenza A/H1N1 pdm09, influenza A/H3, and influenza B was 10.3,29.1 and 21.7%, respectively.
. It was in sharp contrast with previous studies [11, 12] in which participants reported mixed infections as P.
Descriptive statistics including frequencies and percentages were used to describe the distribution of index delivery hospitalizations across patient- and hospital-level characteristics and stratified by exposure groups (HIV and TB negative, HIV monoinfection
, TB monoinfection
, and HIV-TB coinfection).
Supported by high prevalences of HCV monoinfection
reported among PWID in Dar es Salaam (27.7%)  and Zanzibar (22%) , this finding resolves the uncertainty of the previous studies that were unable to divulge the transmission mode of HCV in the country [38, 53].
The blood samples confirmed by microscopy as positive with monoinfection
Different studies have shown that HDV infection aggravates the course of a hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection, accelerating progression to cirrhosis and leading to early decompensation of liver function compared with monoinfection
with HBV [7, 8].
The HBV monoinfection
is a serious and common infectious disease of the liver.
Except for these roles in influenza monoinfection
, PB1-F2 primes and promotes more pulmonary immunopathology in the superinfection leading to secondary bacterial pneumonia, especially caused by Gram-positive pathogens [9,10].