monoclonal antibody


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mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y (MAB, MoAb),

an antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of fused hybrid cells, that is, hybridoma. Hybrid cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody that is chemically and immunologically homogeneous.

The technique for producing monoclonal antibodies, invented in 1975 by molecular biologists César Milstein and Georges Köhler, has become a mainstay of immunologic research and medical diagnosis. MoAbs serve as experimental probes in cell biology, biochemistry, and parasitology, and are used in purification of biological substances and certain drugs (for example, interferons). Because of their high specificity in binding to target antigens, they provide far more accurate assays than conventional antiserum. They are used in the therapy of a wide variety of disorders, including Crohn disease, rheumatoid arthritis, rejection of transplanted organs, and neoplasms, particularly myelogenous and lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas. Monoclonal antibodies kill tumor cells by several mechanisms, including apoptosis and lysis mediated by complement and cytotoxic cells, They can also act as conduits for radioisotopes or toxic agents linked to them. The generic name assigned to a monoclonal antibody or fragment ends in -mab. The syllable preceding the suffix indicates the source of the antibody (for example, -a-, rat; -o-, mouse; -u-, human) and the syllable before that indicates the relevant disease type or tumor site (for example, -cir-, circulatory; -gov-, gonad-ovary; -tum-, unspecified tumor). Thus, satumomab, a mouse-derived tumor antibody.

monoclonal antibody

n.
Any of the highly specific antibodies produced in large quantity by the clones of a single hybridoma cell.

monoclonal antibody

Diagnostics
Mabs are used in diagnostics by radioactively labelling them to target malignant cells, detect metastases and screen body fluids for microorganisms, or measure levels of circulating hormones.

Fringe oncology
Alternative healthcare providers may include therapeutic Mabs as a part of treatment.

Immunology
A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally (e.g., in cold haemagglutinin) or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell (mouse myeloma) to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen.

Oncology
Mabs are increasingly used in cancer management as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumours, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system in destroying malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, and form the basis for vaccines and drug delivery systems.
 
Adverse effects
Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems.
 
Pathology
Mabs are used in pathology to differentiate tumour subtypes with batteries of Mabs raised against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens.

monoclonal antibody

MAb, MoAb Diagnostics MAbs are used in diagnostics by radioactively-labelling MAbs to target malignant cells, detect metastases, and screen body fluids for microorganisms or measure levels of circulating hormones. MAbs are used in pathology to differentiate tumor subtypes with batteries of MAbs against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens. See Hybridoma Immunology A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally–eg, in cold hemagglutinin disease, plasma cell dyscrasia, or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell–mouse myeloma to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen. See Monoclonal immunoglobulin Oncology MAbs are viewed as a therapy for CA, as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumors, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system–a nonspecific arm of the immune system, which may destroy malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, form the basis for CA vaccines, and for drug delivery systems Adverse effects Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems. See Biological response modifier, Clone bank, HAMA. Cf Humanized antibody.

mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y

(mon'ō-klō'năl an'ti-bod-ē)
An antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of hybrid cells (i.e., hybridoma); hybrid cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody that is chemically and immunologically homogeneous; a mainstay of immunologic research and medical diagnosis.
See also: cluster of differentiation

monoclonal antibody (mAb)

an ANTIBODY produced by a CLONE of cells derived from a single, selected cell. Such antibodies are extremely pure and monoclonal techniques have enabled the production of specific antibodies to tumerous cells.

Monoclonal antibody

A protein substance which is produced in the laboratory by a single population of cells. They are being tested as a possible form of cancer treatment.

mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y

(mon'ō-klō'năl an'ti-bod-ē)
An antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of hybrid cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
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Major players operating in the global monoclonal antibody therapeutics market and included in this report are AbbVie, Inc., Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Amgen, Inc., Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals, Biogen.
(2013) Comparison of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and Furin-2A (F2A) for monoclonal antibody expression level and quality in CHO cells.
True North Therapeutics will use the money to advance its lead drug candidate TNT009, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits a target of the Classical Complement pathway, into clinical trials.
Chimpanzees are the only species other than humans that can be infected by the hepatitis C virus and therefore the results from this study were critical in the development of the monoclonal antibody.
* AMG 181 is a human monoclonal antibody. It is being investigated in Phase la and Phase lb for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
According to Huang, Abnova's initiation of an antibody humanization program with the American partner using a proprietary in-vitro immunization platform for its in-house monoclonal antibody targeting a HMGB1 (high-mobility group box 1) protein involved in sepsis.
"Boosting proven monoclonal antibody products will yield critical medical and commercial advantages, making a growing multi-billion dollar product category even better," said Jeff Morhet, president and CEO of InNexus Biotechnology.
Tecan and the Monash Antibody Technologies Facility have joined forces to develop a new state-of-the-art monoclonal antibody production system capable of producing thousands of novel antibodies every year for researchers around the world.
The trial uses a unique humanized monoclonal antibody against human CD3 on T lymphocytes.
today announced the publication of data showing that the company's humanized monoclonal antibody (Mab) targeted against CD32B demonstrated potent antitumor activity against B-cell lymphomas in preclinical studies.
Infected cells that showed CPEs were harvested and evaluated by immunofluorescent assay (IFA) (3) for flavivirus antigen, by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled flavivirus polyclonal antisera (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Puerto Rico), and for WNV antigen by using the WNV-specific monoclonal immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody H5-46 and IgG neutralizing monoclonal antibody 7H2.

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