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mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y (MAB, MoAb),
The technique for producing monoclonal antibodies, invented in 1975 by molecular biologists César Milstein and Georges Köhler, has become a mainstay of immunologic research and medical diagnosis. MoAbs serve as experimental probes in cell biology, biochemistry, and parasitology, and are used in purification of biological substances and certain drugs (for example, interferons). Because of their high specificity in binding to target antigens, they provide far more accurate assays than conventional antiserum. They are used in the therapy of a wide variety of disorders, including Crohn disease, rheumatoid arthritis, rejection of transplanted organs, and neoplasms, particularly myelogenous and lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas. Monoclonal antibodies kill tumor cells by several mechanisms, including apoptosis and lysis mediated by complement and cytotoxic cells, They can also act as conduits for radioisotopes or toxic agents linked to them. The generic name assigned to a monoclonal antibody or fragment ends in -mab. The syllable preceding the suffix indicates the source of the antibody (for example, -a-, rat; -o-, mouse; -u-, human) and the syllable before that indicates the relevant disease type or tumor site (for example, -cir-, circulatory; -gov-, gonad-ovary; -tum-, unspecified tumor). Thus, satumomab, a mouse-derived tumor antibody.
Mabs are used in diagnostics by radioactively labelling them to target malignant cells, detect metastases and screen body fluids for microorganisms, or measure levels of circulating hormones.
Alternative healthcare providers may include therapeutic Mabs as a part of treatment.
A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally (e.g., in cold haemagglutinin) or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell (mouse myeloma) to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen.
Mabs are increasingly used in cancer management as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumours, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system in destroying malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, and form the basis for vaccines and drug delivery systems.
Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems.
Mabs are used in pathology to differentiate tumour subtypes with batteries of Mabs raised against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens.
monoclonal antibodyMAb, MoAb Diagnostics MAbs are used in diagnostics by radioactively-labelling MAbs to target malignant cells, detect metastases, and screen body fluids for microorganisms or measure levels of circulating hormones. MAbs are used in pathology to differentiate tumor subtypes with batteries of MAbs against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens. See Hybridoma Immunology A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally–eg, in cold hemagglutinin disease, plasma cell dyscrasia, or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell–mouse myeloma to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen. See Monoclonal immunoglobulin Oncology MAbs are viewed as a therapy for CA, as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumors, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system–a nonspecific arm of the immune system, which may destroy malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, form the basis for CA vaccines, and for drug delivery systems Adverse effects Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems. See Biological response modifier, Clone bank, HAMA. Cf Humanized antibody.
mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y(mon'ō-klō'năl an'ti-bod-ē)
See also: cluster of differentiation