monoclonal antibody


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mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y (MAB, MoAb),

an antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of fused hybrid cells, that is, hybridoma. Hybrid cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody that is chemically and immunologically homogeneous.

The technique for producing monoclonal antibodies, invented in 1975 by molecular biologists César Milstein and Georges Köhler, has become a mainstay of immunologic research and medical diagnosis. MoAbs serve as experimental probes in cell biology, biochemistry, and parasitology, and are used in purification of biological substances and certain drugs (for example, interferons). Because of their high specificity in binding to target antigens, they provide far more accurate assays than conventional antiserum. They are used in the therapy of a wide variety of disorders, including Crohn disease, rheumatoid arthritis, rejection of transplanted organs, and neoplasms, particularly myelogenous and lymphocytic leukemias and lymphomas. Monoclonal antibodies kill tumor cells by several mechanisms, including apoptosis and lysis mediated by complement and cytotoxic cells, They can also act as conduits for radioisotopes or toxic agents linked to them. The generic name assigned to a monoclonal antibody or fragment ends in -mab. The syllable preceding the suffix indicates the source of the antibody (for example, -a-, rat; -o-, mouse; -u-, human) and the syllable before that indicates the relevant disease type or tumor site (for example, -cir-, circulatory; -gov-, gonad-ovary; -tum-, unspecified tumor). Thus, satumomab, a mouse-derived tumor antibody.

monoclonal antibody

n.
Any of the highly specific antibodies produced in large quantity by the clones of a single hybridoma cell.

monoclonal antibody (MAB)

Etymology: Gk, monos, single, klon, twig; Gk, anti + AS, bodig, body
an antibody produced in a laboratory from a single clone of B lymphocytes. All MABs produced from the same clone are identical and have the same antigenic specificity.

monoclonal antibody

Diagnostics
Mabs are used in diagnostics by radioactively labelling them to target malignant cells, detect metastases and screen body fluids for microorganisms, or measure levels of circulating hormones.

Fringe oncology
Alternative healthcare providers may include therapeutic Mabs as a part of treatment.

Immunology
A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally (e.g., in cold haemagglutinin) or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell (mouse myeloma) to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen.

Oncology
Mabs are increasingly used in cancer management as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumours, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system in destroying malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, and form the basis for vaccines and drug delivery systems.
 
Adverse effects
Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems.
 
Pathology
Mabs are used in pathology to differentiate tumour subtypes with batteries of Mabs raised against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens.

monoclonal antibody

MAb, MoAb Diagnostics MAbs are used in diagnostics by radioactively-labelling MAbs to target malignant cells, detect metastases, and screen body fluids for microorganisms or measure levels of circulating hormones. MAbs are used in pathology to differentiate tumor subtypes with batteries of MAbs against intermediate filaments or membrane antigens. See Hybridoma Immunology A highly specific antibody formed by a clone of B lymphocytes, either naturally–eg, in cold hemagglutinin disease, plasma cell dyscrasia, or produced synthetically by fusing an immortal cell–mouse myeloma to a cell producing an antibody against a desired antigen. See Monoclonal immunoglobulin Oncology MAbs are viewed as a therapy for CA, as they directly inhibit the growth of certain tumors, can be chemically bound to toxins that are lethal to malignant cells, stimulate the complement system–a nonspecific arm of the immune system, which may destroy malignant cells, can be used to purge the BM of malignant cells, form the basis for CA vaccines, and for drug delivery systems Adverse effects Allergic reactions, fevers, chills, hypotension, liver and kidney problems. See Biological response modifier, Clone bank, HAMA. Cf Humanized antibody.

mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y

(mon'ō-klō'năl an'ti-bod-ē)
An antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of hybrid cells (i.e., hybridoma); hybrid cells are cloned to establish cell lines producing a specific antibody that is chemically and immunologically homogeneous; a mainstay of immunologic research and medical diagnosis.
See also: cluster of differentiation

monoclonal antibody (mAb)

an ANTIBODY produced by a CLONE of cells derived from a single, selected cell. Such antibodies are extremely pure and monoclonal techniques have enabled the production of specific antibodies to tumerous cells.

Monoclonal antibody

A protein substance which is produced in the laboratory by a single population of cells. They are being tested as a possible form of cancer treatment.

mon·o·clo·nal an·ti·bod·y

(mon'ō-klō'năl an'ti-bod-ē)
An antibody produced by a clone or genetically homogeneous population of hybrid cells.

antibody

specialized serum proteins produced by B lymphocytes in response to an immense number of different antigens (>107) to which an animal may be exposed. Antibody produced by a particular antigen combines with that antigen only. The exquisite specificity of Ab for the antigen that stimulated its production is the basis for all antibody-antigen reactions both in vivo and in vitro. Antibodies are heterodimers composed of two light (L) and two heavy (H) chain polypeptide molecules. The amino termini of the L and H chains have a variable amino acid sequence VL and VH. The specificity of Ab for Ag is conferred by the VL and VH domains. There are five major classes of antibody, designated IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE. Abbreviated Ab or Ig. Called also immunoglubulin or gamma globulin. See also immunity.

affinity purification of antibody
anaphylactic antibody
antibody, usually IgE, formed after the first injection of certain allergens and responsible for the signs of anaphylaxis following subsequent exposures to the same allergen.
antibody-antigen reaction
the specific combination of antigen with homologous antibody resulting in the reversible formation of antibody-antigen complexes that differ in composition according to the antibody-antigen ratio. See also antigen.
antinuclear antibody (ANA)
autoantibodies directed against components of the cell nucleus, e.g. DNA, RNA and histones; they may be detected by immunofluorescence. A positive ANA test is characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis.
anti-idiotype antibody
antibodies against the antibody variable region.
anti-immunoglobulin antibody
those produced against an immunoglobulin, often used as reagents to study immunoglobulin molecules.
antiplatelet antibody
see antiplatelet antibody.
antispermatozoal antibody
produced following entry of sperm into the bloodstream, e.g. following rupture of the epididymis as in Brucella ovis infections.
blocking antibody
circulating antibody (usually IgG) that reacts preferentially with an antigen, preventing it from reacting with a cell-bound antibody (IgE) and blocking the induction of anaphylaxis.
antibody classes
clonotypic antibody
clone specific antibody.
cold-reacting antibody
see cold agglutinin.
complement-fixing antibody
immunoglobulins of the IgG or IgM class which bind complement.
cross-reacting antibody
one that combines with an antigen other than, but structurally related to, the one that induced its production.
cytophilic antibody
cytotropic antibody (below).
cytotoxic antibody
that which binds antigens expressed on the cell surface, which may (a) activate the complement pathway or (b) activate killer cells, resulting in cell lysis.
cytotropic antibody
those that attach to tissue cells (such as IgE to mast cells and basophils) that have an Fc receptor.
antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
a cytotoxic reaction in which nonsensitized cells bearing Fc receptors recognize target cells that have antibody bound to antigen exposed in the cell membrane of the target cell.
fluorescent antibody
see fluorescence microscopy.
heteroclitic antibody
one with greater affinity for an antigen other than the one that stimulated its formation.
hormonal antibody
has been investigated mostly as a means of controlling fertility in animals. See also contraception.
humoral antibody
see humoral immunity.
immune antibody
one induced by immunization or by transfusion incompatibility, in contrast to natural antibodies.
incomplete antibody
an antibody which combines with antigen without producing an observable reaction such as agglutination; originally used to describe Rh antibodies.
maternal a's
those passively transferred from dam to fetus or neonate, transplacentally or via colostrum or yolk sac. See also passive immunity.
antibody-mediated cytotoxicity
damage to cells, especially erythrocytes, caused by the reaction of antibodies (IgG, IgM or IgA) with cell surface antigens.
antibody-mediated immunity
humoral immunity.
monoclonal antibody
see monoclonal antibodies.
natural a's
ones that react with antigens to which the individual has had no known exposure. The best examples are anti a and b antibodies present in serum of humans of blood group B and A, respectively.
neutralizing antibody
one that reduces, destroys or blocks infectivity of an infectious agent, particularly virus, by partial or complete destruction of the agent.
nonagglutinating antibody
see incomplete antibody (above).
polyclonal antibody
a collection of immunoglobulins that react against the same or different antigenic determinants of the one antigen molecule.
protective antibody
one responsible for immunity to an infectious agent.
reaginic antibody
antibody repertoire
all the antibody specificities that can be produced by an individual.
saline antibody
complete antibody.
skin-sensitizing antibody
see reagin.
univalent antibody
see incomplete antibody (above).
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