Table 3 Relationship between Diameter and the Percentage of Gold Atoms Exposed on the Surface of Colloidal Gold Forms of Diameter of Gold Percentage of Metallic Gold Particle (nm) Atoms/Particles Gold Atoms Exposed at the Surface of Particle * Monoatomic gold 0.28 1 100 Gold nanoclusters 0.8 11 70 Gold colloids 1-100 20-[10.sup.9] 2.0-60 Coarse metallic gold < 100 < [10.sup.9] < 2.0 * Based on the assumption that the gold colloids and the gold atoms are spherical.
(52) Since disproportionation of aurothiolates generate monoatomic metallic gold with a diameter of 0.28 nm, a size below the resolution of EM, the only way the gold particles in the lysosomes could be visible under EM is by clustering of metallic monoatomic gold to form colloidal gold particles visible under EM.
Song and Yovanovich  presented the values of TAC as a function of gas molecular weight ([M.sub.g]) and [T.sub.s] by using the data reported by various researchers in the literature for both monoatomic, diatomic, and polyatomic gases.
According to Maxwell , for a dilute, ideal monoatomic gas, the first-order slip condition can be described as follows:
The difference between the entropy of a substance (with the same formula) in a crystal state and the entropy of a monoatomic
gas mixture is nearly two orders smaller than the value of the atomization entropy and therefore does not affect the magnitude of the latter.
Monoatomic chains can disintegrate due to atomic movements in both longitudinal and transverse directions caused by thermal fluctuations.
As a concrete example, we estimate the lifetime, interatomic distances for 1D gold clusters and compare them to the available experimental and theoretical data on monoatomic gold chains.
where [k.sub.tri], [k.sub.trj] are the monoatomic
values of thermal conductivity of component i and j respectively (dimensionless) and M[W.sub.i], M[W.sub.j] are the molecular weights of components i and j, respectively (kg/kmol).
expressed the standard Gibbs energy changes for monoatomic and diatomic evaporations of P the following, respectively :
Surface area of molten Si is assumed to be constant at A ([m.sup.2]), and evaporations of Si and monoatomic P are taken into account.
species can have recourse only to translational and electronic degrees of freedom.
Evans and Heyes have used a statistical mechanics model to predict the shear and elongational viscosity of monoatomic