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an immunizing preparation that protects against more than one kind of pathogen, such as the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccine or the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine.
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration or treatment of infectious diseases.
antibody made to antigenic determinants located in the variable domains of immunoglobulin molecules. Proposed as a means of regulating antibody responses and also as a substitute antigen for vaccination.
a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to induce protective immunity. Attenuated microorganisms including particularly bacteria and viruses may be found naturally or they may be produced in the laboratory, for example by adaptation to a new medium or cell culture or they may be produced by recombinant DNA technology.
a vaccine prepared from cultures of material derived from a lesion of the animal to be vaccinated, e.g. wart vaccine.
a preparation of attenuated or killed bacteria, used to immunize against organisms injected, or sometimes for pyrogenetic effects in treatment of certain noninfectious diseases.
a formulation containing a protective, noninfectious, immunogenic subunit produced in or by a biological system.
a vaccine, usually a virus, attenuated by serial passage through goats, e.g. caprinized rinderpest vaccine. In highly susceptible cattle this vaccine may cause significant reactions and lapinized vaccines are preferred.
one that should always be included in the basic immunization program for the species.
inactivated vaccine; one with organisms that have been killed.
DNA sequences that code for immunogenic proteins located in appropriately constructed plasmids which include strong promoters, which when injected into an animal are taken up by cells and the immunogenic proteins are expressed and elicit an immune response. No vaccines of this type are licensed and concerns about safety have not been resolved.
one developed from a virus that is antigenically distinct but related to that causing the disease for which the animal is being immunized, e.g. measles vaccine used to protect dogs from canine distemper.
one developed from the same virus as that causing the disease the animal is being immunized against.
human diploid cell vaccine
an inactivated rabies vaccine made from rabies virus grown on human embryo lung fibroblast cells.
see dead vaccine (above).
killed virus (KV) vaccine
see dead vaccine (above).
a vaccine prepared from live, usually attenuated, microorganisms.
material containing vaccinia virus collected from vaccinial vesicles of inoculated calves; used for active immunization against smallpox.
see mixed bacterial vaccine.
modified live virus (MLV) vaccine
see attenuated vaccine (above).
one prepared from more than one strain or species of microorganisms.
one created by recombinant DNA technology.
one containing only specific antigenic proteins of the infectious agent.
synthetic peptide vaccine
using synthetic short peptides which correspond with major epitopes of viral proteins to elicit a protective antibody response.
use of viruses as vectors to carry selected genes from another virus for immunization.