secondary to visceral Leishmaniasis.
Hepatitis C virus infection, mixed cryoglobulinemia
, and kidney disease.
Other autoimmune diseases associated to audiovestibular symptoms include Hashimoto's thyroiditis, mixed cryoglobulinemia
, giant cell arteritis (GCA), Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada's disease, and Ulcerative Colitis.
Our patient also had associated mixed cryoglobulinemia
, which was evidenced by a positive cryoglobulin level with high rheumatoid factor levels.
Up to 80 percent of patients with essential mixed cryoglobulinemia
are infected with HCV, and nearly 50 percent of patients with HCV infection have low levels of circulating mixed cryoglobulins [6, 7].
Extrahepatic manifestations Several extrahepatic manifestations, including vasculitis, purpura, mixed cryoglobulinemia
, polyarteritis nodosa, arthralgias, glomerulonephritis, peripheral neuropathy, have been reported in CHB patients (1, 2).
Wells turned out to have a rare disorder caused by hepatitis C known as Type 2 mixed cryoglobulinemia
Several glomerular diseases including mixed cryoglobulinemia
, membranous nephropathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and polyarteritisnodosa are associated with hepatitis C.
Their prevalence, however, is far more common in HCV patient  and can lead to mixed cryoglobulinemia
syndrome, a small to medium vessel vasculitis, resulting from production of polyclonal IgG and monoclonal (type II) or polyclonal (type III) IgM with rheumatoid factor activity .
Cacoub, "Treatment of hepatitis C-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia
vasculitis," Current Opinion in Rheumatology, vol.
Also in MPGN associated with mixed cryoglobulinemia
with or without HCV infection rituximab has been shown to be effective in conjunction with glucocorticoids, although severe adverse effects such as fatal infections have been reported [33-35].
Several dermatological manifestations of HCV infection have been described during the past 10 years, which include leukocytoclastic vasculitis, porphyria cutanea tarda, mixed cryoglobulinemia
, lichen planus, polyarteritis nodosa, urticaria, erythema nodosum, and erythema multiforme.