SIRT3 gene is highly expressed in brain, heart, liver, kidney, testis, and muscles (15,16), and the SIRT3 protein is localized in the mitochondrial matrix
. SIRT3 has been found to block development of cardiac hypertrophy and protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-mediated cell death.
quench the free radicals leaking into the mitochondrial matrix
CoQ10 is well characterized as intrinsic part of the ETC for its role in electron transport in mitochondrial respiratory chain between complexes I/II and III and the connected proton translocation from mitochondrial matrix
to intermembrane space.
The mitochondria observed in MeHg-treated embryos maintained the tubular morphology but exhibited loss of mitochondrial crests and swelling in the mitochondrial matrix
(Figures 2(b) and 2(e)-2(h)).
Normally, ROS can be eliminated efficiently by anti-oxidative enzyme system in mitochondrial matrix
, but redundant ROS would exhaust endogenous antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione, and this will induce oxidative stress injury and mitochondrial dysfunction, which in turn accumulates ROS [25, 26].
It has been described that the AT2R receptor can dimerize with the bradykinin receptor (B2R) in the cell membrane and with the mtNOS in the mitochondrial matrix
, which, on activation, increase the production of NO in the two microenvironments [60, 61].
This allows the uncoupling of ATP synthesis from the proton electrochemical gradient via a proton leak into the mitochondrial matrix
, promoting a decreased [DELTA][PSI] without ATP production (Slocinska et al.
Since initial steps of testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen biosynthesis take place in the mitochondrial matrix
(Felty and Roy 2005; Ramalho-Santos and Amaral 2013), a disruption in mitochondrial integrity or function could possibly lead to endocrine disruption.
Greater mitochondrial coupling promotes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) [25, 26] as proton reentry in the mitochondrial matrix
independent of ATP synthesis is reduced and substrate utilization is slowed.
Thus, the following resulting conditions are nearly optimal for MPTP opening: high [Ca.sup.2+] levels within the mitochondrial matrix
, increased levels of phosphate and oxidative stress, depletion of adenine nucleotide concentration, and rapid restoration of physiological value of pH [113-115].
identified translocation of nuclear DNMT1 to the mitochondrial matrix
, regulated by a mitochondria targeting sequence , with translocation sensitive to overexpression of activators that respond to oxidative stress.
Nagai et al., "Identification of mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms that alter mitochondrial matrix
pH and intracellular calcium dynamics," PLoS Genetics, vol.