However, it is thought that mutations in the D-loop region affect the initiation of replication and promoter region, leading to impaired mitochondrial biogenesis
and transcriptional and protein expression (32).
To determine whether boosting mitochondrial biogenesis
and function with an [NAD.sup.+] precursor reduces Parkinson's disease pathology, researchers tested nicotinamide riboside's effects in neuronal stem cells derived from Parkinson's disease patients who had the most common Parkinson's genetic defect and in fruit flies that also had the defective gene.
: pharmacological approaches.
Elucidation of the therapeutic role of mitochondrial biogenesis
transducers NRF-1 in the regulation of renal fibrosis.
Martin has emphasized the need to assess insulin therapy to avoid over-consumption of Indian spices that may be the cause of inactivation of insulin therapy and mitochondrial biogenesis
. He has also stressed how imperative genomic medicine and Sirt 1 genes can be in maintaining insulin therapy, especially in the developing world with toxic immune reactions vital to NAFLD.
ER stress and mitochondrial biogenesis
are inseparably related, and prevention of the former and promotion of the latter in the heart are important in maintaining cardiac function and preventing cardiac diseases (2).
Nuclear activators and coactivators in mammalian mitochondrial biogenesis
. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1576, 1-14.
modulating intrinsic apoptosis (Mertens-Talcott et al., 2003; Zhang et al., 2013)) and trigger mitochondrial biogenesis
Oxidative stress in NAFLD/NASH is associated with the reduced expression of PGC-1[alpha] in adipose tissue, negatively affecting mitochondrial biogenesis
, thereby resulting in the mitochondrial dysfunction that is seen in the development of IR .
PGC-1[alpha] most notably increases transcription of proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis
and respiration [76,242,265,267,269,274,279,282,285,288-293] but also increases transcription of antioxidant proteins including SOD1 , SOD2 [76,282,289,292-294], catalase , GPx [76,294], thioredoxins [282,283,292], TRXR [282,292], Prx3 [282, 292], and Prx5 [282, 292], as well as the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins UCP2 [76, 265, 282, 288, 294], UCP3 [76, 265, 294], and ANT [76, 295].
PPAR[beta]/[delta] regulates lipid metabolism and myelination in the brain while PPAR[gamma] regulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial biogenesis
, and inflammation .