mitochondrial DNA

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Related to mitochondrial DNA: Mitochondrial disease

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),

species of DNA present in mitochondria, where it participates in energy metabolism, rather than in the nucleus.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mitochondrial DNA

n. Abbr. mtDNA
DNA that is contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is inherited maternally.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

mitochondrial DNA

A small circular DNA molecule of which all MITOCHONDRIA in cells have several copies. It contains 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes. Being present in the cytoplasm of the cell, is transmitted exclusively by the mother. A mature ovum contains about 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA; sperms contain none. The genome has been completely sequenced. Its main function is to code for enzymes needed by the mitochondrion. The sites of common mutations, especially deletions, are known as are a number of diseases caused by these defects in the mitochondrial DNA. See MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DISEASES.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

the DNA GENOME in the MITOCHONDRION that codes for a number of the organelle's functions. The genome is replicated and transcribed by a separate set of ENZYMES from those of the eukaryotic cell NUCLEUS. In METAZOANS the mtDNA is generally circular, and there appear to be no INTRONS. The GENETIC CODE shows differences from the universal code.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The identification of mitochondrial DNA variants in glioblastoma multiforme.
Diversity of mitochondrial DNA in three Arabian horse strains.
Larsson, "Mitochondrial DNA mutations in disease and aging," The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
As a result, every cell in the iPS cell line will contain the same mitochondrial DNA mutations as that initial adult cell.
Mitochondrial DNA (mDNA) does not affect characteristics such as appearance and personality.
Its mother's faulty mitochondrial DNA - which act as power plants in cells and make up just 0.1 per cent of a person's genetic code - would be swapped for that of a woman donor.
These changes in the form of telomere shortening and alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), are important in the aging process, and this new research provides evidence that psychosocial factors--specifically childhood adversity and psychiatric disorders-- may also influence these cellular changes and could lead to accelerated aging.
Under the new rules, IVF clinics will be able to replace a baby's defective mitochondrial DNA with healthy DNA from a female donor's egg.
The new technique, developed at the University of Newcastle, raises the hope of ensuring a baby does not inherit malfunctioning mitochondrial DNA.
Besides the mutations, or changes, in DNA found in cancer patients, even healthy people turned out to have several variants in their mitochondrial DNA, though mostly in small proportions.
The first group of papers discusses protocols used to study the transduction of information from mitochondrial DNA to functionally active respiratory complexes, covering investigations of the nucleoid proteome, mitochondrial DNA packaging, replication, transcription, respiratory complex synthesis, and polymerase gamma mutations associated with mitochondrial disorders.

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