mitochondrial DNA

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Related to mitochondrial DNA: Mitochondrial disease

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA),

species of DNA present in mitochondria, where it participates in energy metabolism, rather than in the nucleus.

mitochondrial DNA

n. Abbr. mtDNA
DNA that is contained in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells and is inherited maternally.

mitochondrial DNA

A small circular DNA molecule of which all MITOCHONDRIA in cells have several copies. It contains 16,569 base pairs and 37 genes. Being present in the cytoplasm of the cell, is transmitted exclusively by the mother. A mature ovum contains about 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA; sperms contain none. The genome has been completely sequenced. Its main function is to code for enzymes needed by the mitochondrion. The sites of common mutations, especially deletions, are known as are a number of diseases caused by these defects in the mitochondrial DNA. See MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DISEASES.

mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

the DNA GENOME in the MITOCHONDRION that codes for a number of the organelle's functions. The genome is replicated and transcribed by a separate set of ENZYMES from those of the eukaryotic cell NUCLEUS. In METAZOANS the mtDNA is generally circular, and there appear to be no INTRONS. The GENETIC CODE shows differences from the universal code.
References in periodicals archive ?
Detection and quantification of mitochondrial DNA deletions in individual cells by real-time PCR.
A compendium of human mitochondrial DNA control region sequences: Development of an international standard forensic database, Croatian Medical Journal (2001) 42:315-327.
Dr Elson said: This is the only study to date to characterise mitochondrial DNA errors in cholinergic neurons, a neuronal population that is highly vulnerable to cell death in Parkinsons disease patients.
Reference range of mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood
As a result, every cell in the iPS cell line will contain the same mitochondrial DNA mutations as that initial adult cell.
Harmful mutations in mitochondrial DNA can, result in serious and life threatening diseases.
These changes in the form of telomere shortening and alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), are important in the aging process, and this new research provides evidence that psychosocial factors--specifically childhood adversity and psychiatric disorders-- may also influence these cellular changes and could lead to accelerated aging.
Under the new rules, IVF clinics will be able to replace a baby's defective mitochondrial DNA with healthy DNA from a female donor's egg.
Mitochondrial DNA changes at a predictable rate, acting as an evolutionary clock that makes it ideal for such comparisons.
These changes are easy to identify because the mitochondrial DNA genome is so small--just 16,000 units--compared with the three billion units of the genome in the cell's nucleus.
The first group of papers discusses protocols used to study the transduction of information from mitochondrial DNA to functionally active respiratory complexes, covering investigations of the nucleoid proteome, mitochondrial DNA packaging, replication, transcription, respiratory complex synthesis, and polymerase gamma mutations associated with mitochondrial disorders.

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