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Related to mitochondria: Mitochondrial disease, Mitochondria DNA


 [mi″to-kon´dre-ah] (pl. mitochon´dria) (Gr.)
a small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle, the principal sites of ATP synthesis; mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. They also contain DNA, RNA, and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins. adj., adj mitochon´drial.
Mitochondrion. This organelle has a double membrane that unfolds and forms cristae. The membrane and cristae serve as attachment sites for oxidative enzymes. From Damjanov, 2000.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.


Plural of mitochondrion.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


One of the class of important tiny elements (organelles) in the cytoplasm of nucleated (eukaryotic) cells. They may be rod-shaped, spherical, branched or ring-shaped. Mitochondria have double-layered walls, the inner layer being deeply infolded to form compartments. They contains genes and RIBOSOMES and are the site of cell respiration. Their many functions include the Krebs cycle, metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and steroids, pyruvate oxidation, and the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). MITOCHONDRIAL DNA is transmitted only from the mother and, apart from mutations, remains unchanged through the generations. Mitochondria are believed to have developed from bacteria that colonized primitive eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago, thereby providing them with aerobic metabolism.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005


Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005


Spherical or rod shaped parts of the cell. Mitochondria contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
When mitochondria are damaged or dysfunctional because of bad FRs, the cells close the door for glucose entry thus increasing the systemic glucose levels.
As random mutations in mitochondria accumulate, a bioenergetic
Once the cells were converted directly to neurons, mitochondria from older donors were significantly different.
If coenzyme Q10 can penetrate the cell's mitochondria, it can be truly powerful in combating skin aging.
Five hundred milligrams of freshly isolated mitochondria was added to 1 mL of buffer C (KCl 130 mM, HEPES 25 mM, EGTA 0.1 mM, and KH2PO4 10 mM) supplemented with glutamate/malate as substrates for the mitochondrial complex I, 4 [micro]M calcium green, and 10 mM CaCl2.
When everything is working correctly, the mitochondria are healthy and functioning at the top of their game.
The number of publications in the field of mitochondrial function analysis is increasing rapidly and it serves as a proof that the role of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of various conditions is being placed in the center of interest to many scientists and research teams.
The faulty mitochondria also release toxic molecules that damage their genes encoded by DNA."
One source for this cellular heterogeneity are mitochondria and as reviewed by D.
Thus, the aim of this study was to test our hypothesis if caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) may protect kidney mitochondria from ischemic injury.
Given the importance of mitochondria and microRNAs in heart diseases, we hypothesized that mitochondria associated microRNAs may represent a different regulatory layer of HE However, the expression profiling of mitochondria associated microRNAs in heart failure is still unknown.
However, with the help of a New York doctor and a donor's healthy mitochondria, the woman was able to deliver a healthy baby at a hospital in Mexico.