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mitochondrion[mi″to-kon´dre-ah] (pl. mitochon´dria) (Gr.)
a small, spherical to rod-shaped, membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelle, the principal sites of ATP synthesis; mitochondria also contain enzymes of the citric acid cycle and ones for fatty acid oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, and other biochemical pathways. They also contain DNA, RNA, and ribosomes; they replicate independently and synthesize some of their own proteins. adj., adj mitochon´drial.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.
Plural of mitochondrion.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
mitochondriaOne of the class of important tiny elements (organelles) in the cytoplasm of nucleated (eukaryotic) cells. They may be rod-shaped, spherical, branched or ring-shaped. Mitochondria have double-layered walls, the inner layer being deeply infolded to form compartments. They contains genes and RIBOSOMES and are the site of cell respiration. Their many functions include the Krebs cycle, metabolism of fatty acids, amino acids and steroids, pyruvate oxidation, and the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). MITOCHONDRIAL DNA is transmitted only from the mother and, apart from mutations, remains unchanged through the generations. Mitochondria are believed to have developed from bacteria that colonized primitive eukaryotic cells more than a billion years ago, thereby providing them with aerobic metabolism.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
Spherical or rod shaped parts of the cell. Mitochondria contain genetic material (DNA and RNA) and are responsible for converting food to energy.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.