Modification of the pupillary light reflex by miotic
and mydriatic drugs: applicability of model of functional interaction.
Beta-blockers, prostaglandin analogues, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and miotics
are category C drugs.
In longstanding cases, a reduction in pupil size can occur with time until the affected pupil becomes miotic
. Its reaction to light remains sluggish, sectoral or absent.
The disease severity was clinically assessed with a scale ranging from 0 to 4: 0 = normal; 1 = slight iris-vessel dilatation and some anterior chamber cells; 2 = iris hyperemia, with some limitation in pupil dilation, anterior chamber cells, and a slight flare; 3 = miotic
, irregular, hyperemic, and slightly damaged iris, with a considerable flare and cells (especially with accumulation near the iris); 4 = a seriously damaged and hyperemic iris, a miotic
pupil often filled with protein, and cloudy gel-like aqueous humor (AqH).
Physical examination revealed miotic
pupils and fall of arterial blood pressure.
Acknowledging that even the most experienced cataract surgeon can encounter unfortunate circumstances, the contributors describe aspects of the edgier side of procedures, such as subluxated cataracts, dislocated lens fragments, suprahard or posterior polar cataracts, infectious endophthalmitis, and miotic
Cone (24) reported peak miotic
effects within 0.75-1.0 h after 60 and 120 mg of intramuscular codeine in one participant.
Initial examination in the emergency department indicated miotic
pupils (2 mm and equal), CNS depression, and a disconjugate gaze.
Drug class listed Drug name in publication Actual drug class Apraclonidine Adrenergic agonist [Alpha.sub.2]-agonist Brimonidine (ophthalmic) Adrenergic agonist [Alpha.sub.2]-agonist; antiglaucoma Dapiprazole Miotic
Alpha-blocker Dipivefrine Prostaglandin Prodrug of epinephrine Naphazoline (ophthalmic) Decongestant [Alpha.sub.1]-agonist; vasoconstrictor; imidazoline derivative Tetryzoline (ophthalmic) Decongestant Adrenergic agonist; vasoconstrictor; imidazoline derivative
Pupillary constriction by intense pretreatment with miotic
like pilocarpine nitrate 2% topically causes maximum stretching and thinning of iris.
and subject-rated effects of therapeutic doses of tapentadol, tramadol, and hydromorphone in occasional opioid users.
After the pupil was at its most miotic
state, hippus was apparent.