* Malformations were divided into major and minor; major malformation interferes considerably with the function of the child, minor malformation
gives no serious medical or cosmetic consequences to the patients.
is defined as structural abnormality present at birth which has minimal effect on clinical function, but may have a cosmetic effect e.g.
These MPAs are further classified as either minor malformation
or phenogenetic variants  (Table 2).
From the autopsy reports we analyzed several fetal phenotype variables and the description of major and minor malformations
classified by systems.
There was no evidence that this use was associated with large categories of major or minor malformations
. However, there were possible associations with three individual defects: inguinal hernia, cataract, and any benign tumor.
DSD encompass a very large spectrum of phenotypes, from minor malformations
(hypospadias, undescended testes, hypertrophy of the clitoris) to sexual ambiguity of the genitalia.
Minor defects that don't need surgery, like a missing earlobe, occurred in six children exposed to etanercept and showed two different patterns that involved "three specific minor malformations
" not seen in either of the control groups,
A meta-analysis reported that SSRIs do not increase the risk of major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, or minor malformations
but that they do increase the risk of spontaneous abortions (7).
All major and minor malformations
and malformation groupings are those of the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) classification system guide 1.3 .
The presence of other major and minor malformations
in association with a cleft implies that a single etiologic factor--genetic, chromosomal or teratogenic--produced the pattern as a whole.
A great number of major and minor malformations
occur in this area, for instance cleft palate, the glubulomaxillary cyst and missing or supernummary and peg shaped lateral incisors.
"Among the minor malformations
, we found a five times higher rate of angioma, benign tumours made up of small blood vessels on or near the surface of the skin.