mini-chromosome

mini-chromosome

(1) An artificial chromosome created by linking restriction endonuclease digested fragments of DNA.
(2) An extremely small chromosome composed of centromeres and telomeres, in contrast to a conventional chromosome, which also has a large amount of introns (intervening DNA).

New genes can be stacked onto mini-chromosomes, making it much easier to move the genes to target sites, in contrast to traditional genetic modification in which genes are incorporated into a vector and difficult to manipulate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the topics are dormant replication origins, break-induced DNA replication, the mini-chromosome maintenance replicative helicase, the spatial and temporal organization of DNA replication in bacteria and eukarya, DNA replication timing, replication-fork dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion, translesion DNA polymerases, rescuing stalled or damaged replication forks, genome instability in cancer, regulating DNA replication in plants, endoreplication, the archaeology of eukaryotic DNA replication, human mitochondrial DNA replication, whether human papillomavirus infections are warts or cancer, and adenovirus DNA replication.
European firm Bayer CropScience and Chromatin Inc (Chicago, Illinois) have announced that they have entered into a technological alliance and license agreement to use Chromatin's proprietary mini-chromosome technology for crop improvement.
These mini-chromosomes can be used in any plant to simultaneously introduce multiple genes while maintaining precise control of gene expression.
This piece of DNA that has been used successfully to track maternal lineage is a unique mini-chromosome called mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA.
Chromatin's proprietary mini-chromosome technology allows the simultaneous introduction of multiple genes into plants without disrupting the plant's own chromosomes.
"While other technologies provide some of these attributes, the suite of opportunities promised by mini-chromosome technology is unrivaled."
In old blood-forming stem cells, the researchers found a scarcity of specific protein components needed to form a molecular machine called the mini-chromosome maintenance helicase, which unwinds double-stranded DNA so that the cell s genetic material can be duplicated and allocated to daughter cells later in cell division.
So far it has been postulated that only plasmids (in essence, easily transferable mini-chromosomes) are mainly responsible for the exchange of resistance genes.
coli bacteria with the valuable bits of DNA spliced into mini-chromosomes, known as plasmids.
However, the genome sequencing of head lice has revealed the 37 genes are located on 12 or more mini-chromosomes that join and separate.
According to co-author Dr Renfu Shao, the mini-chromosomes "seem to sit at the summit of mitochondrial chromosome evolution".
The plasmids might best be thought of as mini-chromosomes, since as a group they are indispensable in situ and may carry genes encoding proteins involved in housekeeping functions (31).