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any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.
min·er·al oil (MO),(min'ĕr-ăl oyl),
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum, used as a vehicle in pharmaceutical preparations; occasionally used as an intestinal lubricant; can interfere with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
1. Any of various light hydrocarbon oils, especially a distillate of petroleum.
2. A refined distillate of petroleum, used as a laxative.
a laxative, stool softener, emollient, and pharmaceutic aid used as a solvent.
indications It is prescribed to prevent constipation, to treat mild constipation, to prepare the bowel for surgery or examination, and to act as a solvent for various preparations.
contraindications Appendicitis, fecal impaction, obstruction or perforation of the intestinal tract, pregnancy, or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are laxative dependence, lipid pneumonitis, fat-soluble vitamin deficiency, and abdominal cramps.
mineral oilA mixture of liquid petroleum-derived hydrocarbons (specific gravity, 0.818–0.96), which was formerly used as a vehicle for pharmaceuticals or as a GI tract lubricant (i.e., a laxative). While MO may usually be used as a laxative without major adverse effect, in excess it can cause anorexia, malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins and absorption of the oil itself. It may evoke exogenous lipid pneumonia.
mineral oilNutrition A mixture of liquid petroleum-derived hydrocarbons–specific gravity, 0.818-0.96, which was formerly used as a vehicle for pharmaceuticals or as a GI tract lubricant. See Lipoid pneumonia.
min·er·al oil(min'ĕr-ăl oyl)
min·er·al oil(MO) (min'ĕr-ăl oyl)
1. an unctuous, combustible substance that is liquid, or easily liquefiable, on warming, and is not miscible with water, but is soluble in ether. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral or vegetable oils.
2. a fat that is liquid at room temperature.
see sump oil.
oil of chenopodium
extracted from the plant Chenopodium ambrosioides. An old-time anthelmintic.
the coating of spilled crude oil on waterbirds that destroys the waterproofing and insulating properties of their feathers, predisposing them to hypothermia and impairing flight and swimming abilities. It also blocks nares, causes aspiration pneumonia, and has toxic effects on kidneys, reproduction and the gastrointestinal tract.
crops grown primarily for their oil production, e.g. linseed, safflower, sunflower, rapeseed.
crude petroleum oil
crude oil and its several distillates are all relished by cattle and can cause poisoning. The oil as it is extracted from subterranean deposits varies widely in its additional contents. These may be salt or sulfur and cause poisoning by those substances. Oil causes vomiting and death from aspiration pneumonia. Animals do not do well and oil stays in the gut, appearing in the feces for long periods.
diesel and fuel oil
see crude oil.
called also ethereal oil; see volatile oil (below).
see volatile oil (below).
an oil that does not evaporate on warming and occurs as a solid, semisolid or liquid.
see uropygial glands.
occurs in plants; causes gastroenteritis; includes bryonin, croton and castor oils.
a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum. Mineral oil is available in both light (light liquid petrolatum) and heavy (liquid, or heavy liquid, petrolatum) grades. Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, though it may also be used as a cathartic and to cleanse the skin. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent and oleaginous vehicle. Excessive intake over a long period results in hypovitaminosis A.
aquatic birds are worst affected because of pasting together of feathers, poisoning because of contamination of food source, blocking of nares and eyes and starvation because of unpalatability of food supply.
includes kerosene (or kerosine, or paraffin), gasoline (or petrol), diesoline and additives to lubricating oils, e.g. highly chlorinated naphthalenes; any of them may cause poisoning.
accidental or negligent discharge of industrial oil on a body of water; effect is that the oil floats and pollutes the shore and covers aquatic birds and mammals with fatal results in most cases; salvage depends on capture of affected birds and animals and removing the oil.
see sump oil.
sweet birch oil
see methyl salicylate.
see turpentine oil.
an oil that evaporates readily; such oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics.
oil of Wintergreen
see methyl salicylate.
an irritant oil in Taxus baccata, but not the principal irritant in that plant—taxine is.