mineral

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mineral

 [min´er-al]
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl),
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mineral

(mĭn′ər-əl)
n.
An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

mineral

Those metallic elements that are required for optimal functioning of the body. Dietary requirements for minerals range from molar to trace amounts/day; some (e.g., nickel, tin and vanadium) may be required by some plants or animals, but are not known to have a role in human nutrition.

Dietary minerals
Major—Bone: Calcium, phosphate, magnesium. 
Major—Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride. 
Minor—Metalloproteins: Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc. 
Trace: Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin.

Mineral recommended daily allowances/values, sources and benefits
[▪ Mineral—RDA/DV: Food sources; Benefit.]
▪ Calcium—0.8 g/1.0g: Almonds, broccoli, dairy products, fish, fortified orange juice, turnip greens; Bone and teeth growth and 
maintenance, neuromuscular function, blood clotting.
▪ Chloride—750 mcg/none: Salt, salty foods; Electrolyte and fluid balance.
▪ Chromium—50–200 mcg/none: Black pepper, broccoli, brewers’ yeast, brown sugar, dairy products, grape juice, molasses, whole grains; Carbohydrate metabolism.
▪ Copper—1.5–3.0 mg/2.0 mg: Cherries, cocoa, eggs, fish, gelatin, mushrooms, legumes, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Blood cells, connective tissue. 
▪ Fluoride—1.5–4.0 mg/none: Fish, fluoridated water, tea; Strengthens tooth enamel.
▪ Iodine—150 mcg/150 mcg: Iodised salt, milk, shellfish, spinach; Maintains thyroid metabolism.
▪ Iron—10 mg/20 mg: Asparagus, clams, meats, poultry prunes, pumpkin seeds, raisins, soybeans, spinach; Oxygen transportation in red blood cells, metabolism.
▪ Magnesium—350 mg/400 mg: Bananas, broccoli, dairy products, molasses, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, spinach, wheat germ; Neuromuscular activity, bones. 
▪ Manganese—2–5 mg/none: Dairy products, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, whole-grain cereals; Carbohydrate, fat, bone and connective tissue metabolism.
▪ Molybdenum—75–250 µg/none: Breads, cereals, dairy products, legumes, meats, whole grain cereals; Nitrogen metabolism. 
▪ Phosphorus—0.8 g/1.0 g: Cereals, dairy products, eggs, fish, meats, poultry; Energy metabolism, co-acts with calcium to maintain bones.
▪ Potassium—2000 mg/3500 mg: Avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, dairy products, dried fruits, mushrooms, tomatoes; Maintains pH in blood, co-acts with sodium to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Selenium—70 mcg/none: Brazil nuts, dairy products, fish, eats, mushrooms, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Co-acts with vitamin E as an antioxidant. 
▪ Sodium—500 mg/2400 mg: Salt, salty foods, soy sauce; Nervous system function, co-acts with chloride to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Zinc—15 mg/15 mg: Dairy products, fish, lean beef, legumes, lima beans, nuts, oysters, poultry, wheat germ; Wound healing, sperm production, many enzyme reactions.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

mineral

Nutrition A popular term for a nonvitamin nutrient needed to maintain health
Dietary minerals
Major minerals–in bone Calcium, phosphate, magnesium
Major minerals–in electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride
Minor minerals–in metalloproteins Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc
Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl)
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

Mineral

A substance that does not contain carbon (inorganic) and is widely distributed in nature. Minerals play an important role in human metabolism.
Mentioned in: Hypercalcemia
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
It was carefully stocked with interesting specimens from the plant, animal and mineral kingdoms. The king died that same year, and the cabinet was inherited by King Charles XI (1655-1697), who eventually donated it in 1694 to the University of Uppsala.
Another year has passed, and we are finally ready to issue the next volume in the Antiquarian Reprint Series: #12, Pierre Joseph Buc'hoz' The Marvellous Gifts of Nature in the Mineral Kingdom (1776-1782).
There were exhibits which came from far away, or which had been given to him by princes and dukes; roots, juices, parts of rare plants, and much metalla (exhibits from the mineral kingdom).
All kinds of Minerals (the Mineral Kingdom), for example all kinds of stones; gems such as diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, etc.; rarities such as marble, bloodstone, osteocolla, etc.; common things such as sandstone and conglomerate, etc.
the most beautiful and well-developed flowers of the Mineral Kingdom.
It was Werner's opinion that the Pabst von Ohain collection should go to a University or one of the great academies, not only because of its size and quality but probably also because he had meticulously arranged it as a teaching collection according to his own theories on the mineral kingdom, theories which would be perpetuated through generations of students at a large teaching institution.
Typically, such books provide photographs and descriptions of a subset of the mineral kingdom, focusing on those minerals that are most commonly encountered or are of greatest interest to collectors.
The spectacular and rare specimens on display here, from a huge imperial topaz weighing more than 2,000 carats to a 6.8-cm phosphophyllite crystal and crystallized gold clusters that are among the most highly coveted objects in the Mineral Kingdom, are true masterpieces, like the Rembrandts and Van Goghs of the natural world.