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mineral

 [min´er-al]
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl),
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

mineral

(mĭn′ər-əl)
n.
An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

mineral

Those metallic elements that are required for optimal functioning of the body. Dietary requirements for minerals range from molar to trace amounts/day; some (e.g., nickel, tin and vanadium) may be required by some plants or animals, but are not known to have a role in human nutrition.

Dietary minerals
Major—Bone: Calcium, phosphate, magnesium. 
Major—Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride. 
Minor—Metalloproteins: Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc. 
Trace: Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin.

Mineral recommended daily allowances/values, sources and benefits
[▪ Mineral—RDA/DV: Food sources; Benefit.]
▪ Calcium—0.8 g/1.0g: Almonds, broccoli, dairy products, fish, fortified orange juice, turnip greens; Bone and teeth growth and 
maintenance, neuromuscular function, blood clotting.
▪ Chloride—750 mcg/none: Salt, salty foods; Electrolyte and fluid balance.
▪ Chromium—50–200 mcg/none: Black pepper, broccoli, brewers’ yeast, brown sugar, dairy products, grape juice, molasses, whole grains; Carbohydrate metabolism.
▪ Copper—1.5–3.0 mg/2.0 mg: Cherries, cocoa, eggs, fish, gelatin, mushrooms, legumes, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Blood cells, connective tissue. 
▪ Fluoride—1.5–4.0 mg/none: Fish, fluoridated water, tea; Strengthens tooth enamel.
▪ Iodine—150 mcg/150 mcg: Iodised salt, milk, shellfish, spinach; Maintains thyroid metabolism.
▪ Iron—10 mg/20 mg: Asparagus, clams, meats, poultry prunes, pumpkin seeds, raisins, soybeans, spinach; Oxygen transportation in red blood cells, metabolism.
▪ Magnesium—350 mg/400 mg: Bananas, broccoli, dairy products, molasses, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, spinach, wheat germ; Neuromuscular activity, bones. 
▪ Manganese—2–5 mg/none: Dairy products, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, whole-grain cereals; Carbohydrate, fat, bone and connective tissue metabolism.
▪ Molybdenum—75–250 µg/none: Breads, cereals, dairy products, legumes, meats, whole grain cereals; Nitrogen metabolism. 
▪ Phosphorus—0.8 g/1.0 g: Cereals, dairy products, eggs, fish, meats, poultry; Energy metabolism, co-acts with calcium to maintain bones.
▪ Potassium—2000 mg/3500 mg: Avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, dairy products, dried fruits, mushrooms, tomatoes; Maintains pH in blood, co-acts with sodium to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Selenium—70 mcg/none: Brazil nuts, dairy products, fish, eats, mushrooms, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Co-acts with vitamin E as an antioxidant. 
▪ Sodium—500 mg/2400 mg: Salt, salty foods, soy sauce; Nervous system function, co-acts with chloride to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Zinc—15 mg/15 mg: Dairy products, fish, lean beef, legumes, lima beans, nuts, oysters, poultry, wheat germ; Wound healing, sperm production, many enzyme reactions.

mineral

Nutrition A popular term for a nonvitamin nutrient needed to maintain health
Dietary minerals
Major minerals–in bone Calcium, phosphate, magnesium
Major minerals–in electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride
Minor minerals–in metalloproteins Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc
Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl)
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

Mineral

A substance that does not contain carbon (inorganic) and is widely distributed in nature. Minerals play an important role in human metabolism.
Mentioned in: Hypercalcemia
References in periodicals archive ?
Wallach has long promoted the concept that mineral deficiencies are the primary cause of disease, a theory that has fueled debate among the mainstream and alternative medical communities for years.
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, such as iron or zinc, have been reported with pica, but usually patients' lab values are normal
Obesity is already a major factor in long-term illnesses, but what is less well known is the effect of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.
Fortitech is also committed to helping to decrease the amount of people suffering from vitamin and mineral deficiencies in low income regions of the world.
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It's less invasive than a Bypass, and doesn't have the on-going difficulties with dumping and mineral deficiencies that a bypass creates.
School of Medicine) describes everything from the basics of gastroenterology to pharmaceutical causes of gastrointestinal problems, the testy relationship between the esophagus and stomach, disorders related to stomach, ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease (and its relation to genetics), colitis, malnutrition (including common signs of vitamin and mineral deficiencies), intestinal infections, gastroenteritis, food borne illnesses, travelers' diarrhea, gastrointestinal cancer, colonoscopy, esophageal cancer, the pancreas and gall bladder, pancreatitis, gallstones, the liver and its diseases, and the effects of over-the-counter drugs on the liver.
The homestead hog, with access to clean soil and a variety of feeds from fertile ground, won't normally exhibit mineral deficiencies, but the intelligent homesteader should be aware of the requirements.
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies and dehydration are further complications.
This type of under-nutrition is generally referred to as 'hidden hunger'--malnutrition resulting from vitamin and mineral deficiencies. The results of malnutrition can extend for example to impaired productive capacity and blindness from vitamin A deficiency.
The human body rarely lacks phosphorus, but people in developing nations with primarily grain-based diets sometimes have mineral deficiencies.