mineral


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mineral

 [min´er-al]
any naturally occurring nonorganic homogeneous solid substance. There are 19 or more that form the mineral composition of the body; at least 13 are essential to health. These must be supplied in the diet and generally can be supplied by a varied or mixed diet of animal and vegetable products that meet energy and protein needs. For the recommended dietary allowances of common minerals in the United States and Canada, see Appendices 4 and 5. Calcium, iron, and iodine are the ones most frequently missing in the diet. Zinc, copper, magnesium, and potassium are minerals that are frequently involved in disturbances of metabolism. Other essential minerals include selenium, phosphorus, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum. Minerals are either electropositive or electronegative; combinations of electropositive and electronegative elements lead to the formation of salts such as sodium chloride and calcium phosphate.
mineral oil a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum, available in both light grade (light liquid petrolatum) and heavier grades (liquid or heavy liquid petrolatum). Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, but it may also be used as a cathartic and skin emollient and cleansing agent. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent, and oleaginous vehicle. Prolonged use of mineral oil as a cathartic should be avoided because it prevents absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins. Lipid pneumonia caused by aspiration of the oil has been shown to occur in those who habitually take it, especially the elderly.

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl),
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

mineral

(mĭn′ər-əl)
n.
An inorganic element, such as calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, or zinc, that is essential to the nutrition of humans, animals, and plants.

mineral

Those metallic elements that are required for optimal functioning of the body. Dietary requirements for minerals range from molar to trace amounts/day; some (e.g., nickel, tin and vanadium) may be required by some plants or animals, but are not known to have a role in human nutrition.

Dietary minerals
Major—Bone: Calcium, phosphate, magnesium. 
Major—Electrolytes: Sodium, potassium, chloride. 
Minor—Metalloproteins: Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc. 
Trace: Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin.

Mineral recommended daily allowances/values, sources and benefits
[▪ Mineral—RDA/DV: Food sources; Benefit.]
▪ Calcium—0.8 g/1.0g: Almonds, broccoli, dairy products, fish, fortified orange juice, turnip greens; Bone and teeth growth and 
maintenance, neuromuscular function, blood clotting.
▪ Chloride—750 mcg/none: Salt, salty foods; Electrolyte and fluid balance.
▪ Chromium—50–200 mcg/none: Black pepper, broccoli, brewers’ yeast, brown sugar, dairy products, grape juice, molasses, whole grains; Carbohydrate metabolism.
▪ Copper—1.5–3.0 mg/2.0 mg: Cherries, cocoa, eggs, fish, gelatin, mushrooms, legumes, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Blood cells, connective tissue. 
▪ Fluoride—1.5–4.0 mg/none: Fish, fluoridated water, tea; Strengthens tooth enamel.
▪ Iodine—150 mcg/150 mcg: Iodised salt, milk, shellfish, spinach; Maintains thyroid metabolism.
▪ Iron—10 mg/20 mg: Asparagus, clams, meats, poultry prunes, pumpkin seeds, raisins, soybeans, spinach; Oxygen transportation in red blood cells, metabolism.
▪ Magnesium—350 mg/400 mg: Bananas, broccoli, dairy products, molasses, nuts, pumpkin seeds, seafood, spinach, wheat germ; Neuromuscular activity, bones. 
▪ Manganese—2–5 mg/none: Dairy products, dried fruits, leafy green vegetables, legumes, nuts, tea, whole-grain cereals; Carbohydrate, fat, bone and connective tissue metabolism.
▪ Molybdenum—75–250 µg/none: Breads, cereals, dairy products, legumes, meats, whole grain cereals; Nitrogen metabolism. 
▪ Phosphorus—0.8 g/1.0 g: Cereals, dairy products, eggs, fish, meats, poultry; Energy metabolism, co-acts with calcium to maintain bones.
▪ Potassium—2000 mg/3500 mg: Avocados, bananas, cantaloupe, dairy products, dried fruits, mushrooms, tomatoes; Maintains pH in blood, co-acts with sodium to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Selenium—70 mcg/none: Brazil nuts, dairy products, fish, eats, mushrooms, shellfish, whole-grain cereals; Co-acts with vitamin E as an antioxidant. 
▪ Sodium—500 mg/2400 mg: Salt, salty foods, soy sauce; Nervous system function, co-acts with chloride to maintain fluid balance.
▪ Zinc—15 mg/15 mg: Dairy products, fish, lean beef, legumes, lima beans, nuts, oysters, poultry, wheat germ; Wound healing, sperm production, many enzyme reactions.

mineral

Nutrition A popular term for a nonvitamin nutrient needed to maintain health
Dietary minerals
Major minerals–in bone Calcium, phosphate, magnesium
Major minerals–in electrolytes Sodium, potassium, chloride
Minor minerals–in metalloproteins Iron, copper, manganese, iodine, cobalt, molybdenum, selenium, chromium, fluoride, zinc
Trace minerals Nickel, silicon, vanadium, tin

min·er·al

(min'ĕr-ăl)
Any homogeneous inorganic material usually found in the earth's crust.
[L. mineralis, pertaining to mines, fr. mino, to mine]

Mineral

A substance that does not contain carbon (inorganic) and is widely distributed in nature. Minerals play an important role in human metabolism.
Mentioned in: Hypercalcemia
References in periodicals archive ?
Many of those "missing" minerals will be very similar to known forms, with combinations that differ by only a single element--swapping out a magnesium atom for a calcium atom in the recipe for a known mineral, for example, or a sodium atom for a potassium atom.
On this occasion, the minister lauded the role of Draftsmen and Surveyors for the development of the department and mineral sector of the province and stressed for mutual cooperation in the GIS staff of the department for onlining the geographical and technical information regarding minerals so as to facilitate the investors in a better manner.
Unlike many "hot" plays in the US, mineral ownership in the STACK is highly fragmented and many times involve first-time sellers whose ownership could date back to the Oklahoma Sooner Land Rush days in 1889, the principals said.
The company expects to receive aggregate proceeds of approximately CDN 6.2m (USD 4.48m), of which CDN 4.2m is cash, with the remaining CDN 2m in the form of a subordinated promissory note of Opta Minerals bearing interest at 2.0% which will mature 30 months following the close of the transaction.
Explored deposits with complex geological structure and poorly explored reserves of minerals in new areas are included in the B category.
The innovations pursued by LM3I Institute are just the latest use of minerals and metals to create and improve countless technologies that protect our troops abroad and support homeland security.
As a result, there is a total reduction in the probable mineral reserve of 4.9 million tonnes and a reduction in the Fe grade of 0.3%.
"The regulatory reform law directed the Commission to issue rules requiring certain companies to disclose their use of conflict minerals that include tantalum, tin, gold, or tungsten if those minerals are 'necessary to the functionality or production of a product' manufactured by those companies."
By contrast, thousands of mineral species known today are the direct result of growth by living organisms, such as shells and bones, as well as life's chemical byproducts, such as oxygen from photosynthesis.
Iran is also one of the top 15 countries in the world in regard to mineral reserves and exports its industrial and mineral products to 159 countries, including Iraq, China, the United Arab Emirates, India, and Afghanistan, he stated.
Congress originally mandated the rules in 2010, with the intention of reducing use of key minerals such as gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum as a source of financing for armies battling in the Democratic Republic of Congo and other neighboring countries.
When advances in drilling and fracturing technology made shale gas production feasible, mineral estates once believed to have little or no value became potentially very valuable and appraising this land became more complex than a routine appraisal of the fee simple estate.