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a machine for the milking of cows, occasionally sheep and rarely goats. It includes a vacuum pump, a pulsation system, clusters of teat cups, a rigid milk line, some flexible rubber tubes which connect the clusters to the milk line and a number of other components. Many of the components are replicated in the usual machine so that a number of cows can be milked at the same time. The vacuum applied directly to the teat sphincter effects milk removal from the teat, and an intermittent vacuum between the teat cup and the liner relieves the tendency to edema of the teat by squeezing it intermittently. The pressure used in the machine is critical, too great causes damage to the teat, too little causes incomplete milking. The art of good milking technique is to balance one against the other. See also automatic take-off.
milking machine claw
the metal handpiece to which are attached the four cups that, with their inflations, are used to milk the cow.
milking machine clean-in-place
cleaning system consisting of the circulation of cleaning and rinsing fluids through the milking machine without disassembling it.
milking machine cluster
claw plus cups, plus connecting rubber tubes.
high level milking machine
a machine in which the distance between the milk inlet to the milkline and the floor on which the cow is standing exceeds 4 feet.
milking machine liner slip
see teat cup liner slip.
low level milking machine
a machine in which the milk inlet to the milkline is below the level of the floor on which the cow is standing.
milking machine milking
extracting milk from the udder with a milking machine.
milking machine pulsation rate
number of pulsation cycles per minute; varies between machine manufacturers but average is 40 vacuum releases/min.
milking machine pulsation ratio
the ratio of the time during which the teat cup liner is more than half open to the time for which it is less than half open.
milking machine pulsation system
the intermittent increase in vacuum pressure in a milking machine mimics the application of sucking pressure by a sucking neonate by cyclic opening and closing of the teat cup liner; the intermittency is provided by the pulsator which consists of a servodiaphragm. The pulsation to a cluster may be alternate, when two teat cups move alternately with the other two, or simultaneous, when all four cups move at the same time.
milking machine pump capacity
air-moving capacity of the vacuum pump in a milking machine.
milking machine reverse milk flow
excessive changes in machine vacuum pressure cause reverse flow of milk for very brief periods, which allows contact of milk from infected quarters with the teat ends of uninfected quarters. The impact of this milk on a relaxed teat sphincter can effect the entry of infected milk.
milking machine stripping
see machine stripping.
milking machine teat cup liner
see teat cup liner.
milking machine vacuum pressure
varies with design but average is 50 kPa (37.5 cm Hg).
milking machine vacuum reserve
governs vacuum stability, the protection against random acute fluctuations in vacuum pressure, the cause of milk flow reversal and elevation of the new mastitis infection rate.