(a) and (b) Surgical mortality and blood loss significantly decreased by changing the approach of SVR from the midsternum
(control group) to the 4th left anterolateral intercostal space (experimental group).
Breast boundaries: The rectangular area bordered by the clavicle superiorly, midsternum
medially the mid axillary line laterally and the inframamarry or 'bra line' inferiorly.
Massive external swelling, tenderness, and erythema of the anterior neck extended from the chin caudad to the midsternum
, obliterating all cervical landmarks.
The pads of the examiner's middle three fingers are used to examine the entire mound of breast tissue from the clavicle to below the inframammary crease and from the midsternum
to the posterior axillary line.