were depolymerized and microtubule
extensions became rather short (Fig.
The chemical complexity of cellular microtubules
: tubulin post-translational modification enzymes and their roles in tuning microtubule
McCann, "Taxanes, microtubules
and chemoresistant breast cancer," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)--Reviews on Cancer, vol.
The N-terminal area of the tau protein is a projection domain, which may determine the distance between microtubules
in the axon and leads to axon diameter increase.
For their research, the scientists extracted microtubules
from the brain tissue of cows, and mixed them kinesin - a protein that attaches to the microtubules
- and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) - often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
In conclusion, this study demonstrates that GGD has cardioprotective activities against TAC-induced heart failure; these therapeutic effects might correlate with modulation of PTMs on microtubules
. Our study provides experimental evidences for the application of GGD in the treatment of heart failure.
 showed that chlorpromazine did not induce obvious cell shape changes in astrocyte cultures but it clearly changed the distribution of Cx43, and this distribution was based on changes in the state of microtubules
are an extremely important component of the cytoskeleton and are involved in cell division, vesicle transport, cell support, growth and development (Howard and Hyman, 2003; Struk and Dhonukshe, 2014).
, which consist of heterodimers of [alpha]- and [beta]-tubulin, form the filamentous cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells.
A number of landmark studies involving either physical or pharmacological manipulation of echinoderm eggs established the ability of the microtubules
of the mitotic apparatus to specify the cleavage plane (reviewed in Rappaport, 1996; Burgess and Chang, 2005).
(2) Secondary wall patterns are formed by localized deposition of cellulose microfibrils, which results from guided movement of the cellulose synthase complex in the plasma membrane by cortical microtubules
. (37) Cortical microtubules
also act at the delivery of trans-Golgi network vesicles to the plasma membrane that deliver cellulose synthase complexes to cell wall deposition locales.