In this model, the microparasite
transmission is assumed via a mass action process, the fecundity of uninfected host is density-dependent, and the fecundity of infected host may be reduced due to being infected compared with that of uninfected host.
Despite its importance, few studies have been published on the microparasites
found in this species; although, MATOS et al.
Our work lends support to the hypothesis  that helminth infection has a protective effect on concurrent microparasite
infections via modulated host immunity.
In this work, we propose a general, although very sketchy, model that considers a great deal of the aspects related to the dynamics of mosquito-borne microparasites
. From the equilibrium analysis, we calculated the prevalence of the infection in the host populations, from which the number of infected vectors was deduced.
Glugoides intestinalis is a common microparasite
burgdorferi were host specialized, the strains of this microparasite
would migrate differentially, resulting in geographic structuring of this pathogen.
The critical factors that determine the level of virulence in these models are the rates of increase of the microparasite
within a host and, more often, the rates of transmission of the parasite to new hosts.
Antia, "Within-host population dynamics and the evolution of microparasites
in a heterogeneous host population," Evolution, vol.
Aggregation and distribution of strains in microparasites
. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.
magna may interact with other pathogens such as brainworm (Parela-phostronglyus tenuis), Echinococccus spp., and bacterial and viral microparasites
. Various helminths have been implicated in immune suppression (Maizels et al.
In order to understand how six microparasites
regulate Daphnia populations and drive the populations to extinction, Ebert et al.