Vedel, "Kinaesthetic role of muscle afferents in man, studied by tendon vibration and microneurography
," Experimental Brain Research, vol.
 measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity by microneurography
whereas we have assessed the resting sympathetic tone by analysis of HRV.
Interestingly, differences in patterns of cutaneous denervation and [alpha]-synuclein accumulation appear not to be related to patterns of autonomic dysfunction including cardiovascular dysfunction detected by head-up tilt-test and sympathetic nerve dysfunction characterized by microneurography
Other important examinations that can be done in order to understand the complex differential diagnosis of this syndrome include total sweating test to recognize areas of anhidrosis, cardiovascular reflex tests to recognize the presence of autonomic failure, microneurography
from the peroneal nerve to record muscle sympathetic nerve activity and skin sympathetic nerve activity in the same innervation field, and a skin biopsy.
Carne et al., "In vivo MR microneurography
of the tibial and common peroneal nerves," Radiology Research and Practice, vol.
(1982) Kinaesthetic role of muscle afferents in man, studied by tendon vibration and microneurography
. ExperimentalBrain Research 47, 177-190.
Furthermore, direct sympathetic nerve recording using microneurography
demonstrates that obese individuals display increased resting sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle [6, 22, 23].
For many years, several techniques have been developed for the assessment of ANS: (a) dosage of plasmatic and urinary catecholamines (Goldstein 1983), which nowadays is not considered as a highly reliable index of sympathetic activity (Montano 2009), (b) muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), a direct but invasive recording of sympathetic activity using a microneurography
technique (Wallin 2007), (c) analysis of HRV, a non-invasive tool able to provide reliable information on the sympathetic and parasympathetic oscillations of the heart period and arterial pressure time series, (d) more recent non-linear approaches based on entropy-derived measures and symbolic analysis of heart period time series.
(2001), by means of the microneurography
of the peroneal nerve, and high levels of circulating catecholamines found in these patients as observed by La Rovere et al.
has made recording of single Ad-fibre and C fibre activity possible, and provides a direct method for measuring sympathetic activity.
In FMS patients, microneurography
studies have shown the occurrence of spontaneous activity, multiple spikes, abnormal sensitization, abnormalities in activity of in nociceptive fibers , and also frequent systemic symptoms pertaining to dysesthetic, evoked, paroxysmal, and thermal domains that are typical of neuropathic pain .