microglia

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Related to microglial: Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes

microglia

 [mi-krog´le-ah]
non-neural cells forming part of the adventitial structure of the central nervous system. They are migratory and act as phagocytes of waste products of the nervous system. adj., adj microg´lial.

mi·crog·li·a

(mī-krog'lē-ă), This word is grammatically singular. Avoid the mispronunciation microgli'a.
Small neuroglial cells of the central nervous system, originating in the bone marrow, that may become phagocytic in areas of neural damage or inflammation.
[micro- + G. glia, glue]

microglia

(mī′krō-glē′ə, -glī′-)
n.
(used with a pl. verb) Any of the small neuroglial cells of the central nervous system having long processes and amoeboid and phagocytic activity at sites of neural damage or inflammation.

microglial cell

A perivascular bone-marrow-derived cell native to the CNS, belonging to the mononuclear phagocytic system (e.g., monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes), which presents antigens in an MHC-class-II restricted context.

mi·crog·li·a

(mī-krog'lē-ă)
Small neuroglial cells, possibly of mesodermal origin, which may become phagocytic, in areas of neural damage or inflammation.
Synonym(s): Hortega cells.
[micro- + G. glia, glue]
Enlarge picture
MICROGLIA

microglia

(mi-krog'le-a) [? + glia, glue]
Cells of the central nervous system (CNS) present between neurons or next to capillaries. These cells may function as macrophages when they migrate to damaged CNS tissue.
See: gitter cell; illustration

microglia

Neurological connective tissue MACROPHAGES. Compare MACROGLIA.

Hortega,

Pio del Rio, Spanish neurohistologist in South America, 1882-1945.
Hortega cells - small neuroglial cells that may become phagocytic in areas of neural damage or inflammation. Synonym(s): microglia
Hortega neuroglia stain - one of several silver carbonate methods to demonstrate astrocytes, oligodendroglia, and microglia.
References in periodicals archive ?
Twenty adult female Wistar rats (0.19-0.22 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups: the experimental group A (n=10) that received SCI surgery and received the microglial cell transplantation, and the control group B (n=10) that underwent the sham surgery and received a saline injection.
"The inflammatory activity of the microglial cells was permanently increased in these animals."
Microglial responses to amyloid beta peptide opsonization and indomethacin treatment.
Neher, "Microglial phagocytosis of live neurons," Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.
Recently, in AD brain tissue samples, region-specific microglial deterioration associated with decrease in amount of microglia has been described indicating possible differential microglial responses between AD models and patients [68, 73].
Watson and coworkers studied the temporospatial distribution of microglial activation and lymphocytic infiltration as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines in mice overexpressing wild-type (WT) human [alpha]-synuclein under the neuron-specific Thy1-promoter [66].
In summary, the extent of microglial activation is dependent on the time and severity of the insult, and increased TSPO expression seems to be associated with progression of tissue damage and increased risks of further injury.
Although microglial cell activation may lead to an increase in the amount of beta-amyloid and to the slowing down of the progress of the disease, microglia accumulation leads to the release of inflammatory mediators and to the decrease of the amount of beta-amyloid, hence to the loss of functional integrity (19).
(17, 24, 25) These results indicate that PNI-induced allodynia depends on signaling via microglial P2X4Rs.
The two-step activation process of microglia during autoimmune inflammation in CNS required CD40 expression on microglial cells [28].