microencephaly


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mi·cren·ceph·a·ly

(mī'kren-sef'ă-lē),
Abnormal smallness of the brain.
[micro- + G. enkephalos, brain]

microencephaly

[mī′krō·ensef′əlē]
Etymology: Gk, mikros, small, egkephalos, brain
the condition of being born with an abnormally small brain.

microcephaly

An abnormally small head, which is usually associated with neurodevelopmental delay and mental retardation. A standard definition is any brain or head which is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person’s age, sex, height, weight and race.

Conditions associated with microcephaly
Cockayne, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rothmund-Thomson, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes; chromosomal defects (cat-cry or 5p- and trisomy 13 syndromes), in utero infection (CMV), rubella, toxoplasmosis, toxic exposure (foetal alcohol and foetal hydantoin syndromes), radiation (the only confirmed congenital defect specifically linked to atomic bomb blasts (i.e., in Hiroshima and Nagasaki)), or trauma.

Genes linked to microcephaly
ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1, MCPH2, MCPH4.

mi·cren·ceph·a·ly

(mī'kren-sef'ă-lē)
Abnormal smallness of the brain.
Synonym(s): microencephaly.
[micro- + G. enkephalos, brain]

microencephaly

small size of the brain. Usually accompanied by microcephaly.
References in periodicals archive ?
Pervasive hyperactivity and long-term learning impairments in rats with induced microencephaly from prenatal exposure to methylazoxymethanol.
Microcephaly is defined as having a small head relative to body size and is based on the ratio of body weight to head circumference or height-to-head circumference (not to be confused with microencephaly, which refers to the size of the brain).
However, in animals, the most common and traditional means of measuring microencephaly is brain weight.