microcephaly


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Related to microcephaly: macrocephaly

microcephaly

 [mi″kro-sef´ah-le]
small size of the head in relation to the rest of the body. adj., adj microcephal´ic.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

(mī'krō-sef'ă-lē),
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

(mī′krō-sĕf′ə-lē)
n. pl. microcepha·lies
Abnormal smallness of the head.

mi′cro·ce·phal′ic (-sə-făl′ĭk) adj. & n.
mi′cro·ceph′a·lous (-sĕf′ə-ləs) adj.

microcephaly

An abnormally small head, which is usually associated with neurodevelopmental delay and mental retardation. A standard definition is any brain or head which is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person’s age, sex, height, weight and race.

Conditions associated with microcephaly
Cockayne, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rothmund-Thomson, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes; chromosomal defects (cat-cry or 5p- and trisomy 13 syndromes), in utero infection (CMV), rubella, toxoplasmosis, toxic exposure (foetal alcohol and foetal hydantoin syndromes), radiation (the only confirmed congenital defect specifically linked to atomic bomb blasts (i.e., in Hiroshima and Nagasaki)), or trauma.

Genes linked to microcephaly
ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1, MCPH2, MCPH4.

microcephaly

Neonatology An abnormally small head, often associated with developmental delay and mental retardation; any brain or head that is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person's age, sex, height, weight, race. Cf Macrocephaly.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
Synonym(s): nanocephaly.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

Abnormal smallness of the skull. Microcephaly often reflects poor brain development and is usually associated with MENTAL RETARDATION.

Microcephaly

An abnormally small head.

Paine,

R.S.,
Paine retinaculatome
Paine syndrome - males only; onset at birth; physical and mental retardation; seizures. Synonym(s): microcephaly
Paine-Efron syndrome - pain in the back and thigh followed by slowly progressive ataxia. Synonym(s): ataxia-telangiectasia variant

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; often associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]
References in periodicals archive ?
Because a large number of children without microcephaly are nevertheless still suffering neurosensory and developmental problems, children who were exposed to the virus before birth should be monitored throughout their formative years for potential problems in school and in life.
In mothers who delivered babies with microcephaly, such Zika-specific antibodies carried molecular features that seemed to correlate with the condition.
She presented with proptosis, delayed speech, developmental delay, dysmorphic features and microcephaly. Head circumference was 48 cm<1 percentile -3.8 SD.
Another extremely relevant aspect to which the pediatrician should be aware is the fact that, due to the presence of multiple comorbidities, many children with microcephaly manifest, from an early age, episodes of epilepsy and frequent seizures, being therefore habitual users of continuous use drugs.
The World Health Organization (WHO) believes that women who want to terminate their pregnancy for fear of microcephaly should "have access to safe abortion services according to the law".
Up to now, 71 different nonsense mutations in the ASPM gene are reported, all predicted to produce truncated proteins, while no correlation between the position of the mutation within the ASPM gene and the degree of microcephaly and ID exists (Khan et al., 2018).
Thus, all 3 proposed mechanisms failed to explain the case of congenital Zika virus infection with microcephaly in PW2.
The sensitivity analysis to assess possible misclassification of microcephaly at birth identified 84 (6%) children with microcephaly among the 1,450 children who had follow-up care reported: five infants had microcephaly at birth with brain or eye anomalies identified at birth; 59 had microcephaly at birth with no brain or eye anomalies identified at birth; and 20 infants did not have microcephaly identified at birth but had postnatal identification of microcephaly.
Conspicuous phenotype of patients having microcephaly is the presence of small head size (Jacksonetal., 1998; Woods et al., 2002).
A total of 7 out 27 infants with microcephaly who underwent CT scans showed signs of brain abnormalities, suggesting that "congenital Zika virus syndrome can be present in neonates with microcephaly and no radiological brain abnormalities," according to the investigators.
Texas reported 99 cases of Zika Virus (which includes the two infants with Microcephaly in Harris County).
CASE Woman from Brazil gives birth to stillborn baby with microcephaly

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