microcephaly


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Related to microcephaly: macrocephaly

microcephaly

 [mi″kro-sef´ah-le]
small size of the head in relation to the rest of the body. adj., adj microcephal´ic.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

(mī'krō-sef'ă-lē),
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

/mi·cro·ceph·a·ly/ abnormal smallness of the head.microcephal´ic

microcephaly

(mī′krō-sĕf′ə-lē)
n. pl. microcepha·lies
Abnormal smallness of the head.

mi′cro·ce·phal′ic (-sə-făl′ĭk) adj. & n.
mi′cro·ceph′a·lous (-sĕf′ə-ləs) adj.

microcephaly

[mī′krōsef′əlē]
Etymology: Gk, mikros + kephale, head
a congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body and by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation. The head is more than two standard deviations below the average circumference size for age, sex, race, and period of gestation. It has a narrow, receding forehead; a flattened occiput; and a pointed vertex. The facial features are generally normal. The condition may be caused by an autosomal-recessive disorder, a chromosomal abnormality, a toxic stimulus such as irradiation or chemical agents, maternal infection during prenatal development, or any trauma, especially during the third trimester of pregnancy or early infancy. There is no treatment, and nursing care is primarily supportive and educational, helping parents learn to care for a brain-damaged child. Also called microcephalia, microcephalism. Compare macrocephaly. microcephalic, microcephalous, adj., microcephalic, microcephalus, n.

microcephaly

An abnormally small head, which is usually associated with neurodevelopmental delay and mental retardation. A standard definition is any brain or head which is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person’s age, sex, height, weight and race.

Conditions associated with microcephaly
Cockayne, Miller-Dieker, Smith-Lemli-Opitz, Rothmund-Thomson, and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes; chromosomal defects (cat-cry or 5p- and trisomy 13 syndromes), in utero infection (CMV), rubella, toxoplasmosis, toxic exposure (foetal alcohol and foetal hydantoin syndromes), radiation (the only confirmed congenital defect specifically linked to atomic bomb blasts (i.e., in Hiroshima and Nagasaki)), or trauma.

Genes linked to microcephaly
ASPM, CDK5RAP2, CENPJ, MCPH1, MCPH2, MCPH4.

microcephaly

Neonatology An abnormally small head, often associated with developmental delay and mental retardation; any brain or head that is ≥ 3 standard deviations below the mean for a person's age, sex, height, weight, race. Cf Macrocephaly.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; applied to a cranium with a capacity less than 1350 mL. Usually associated with mental retardation.
Synonym(s): nanocephaly.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

Abnormal smallness of the skull. Microcephaly often reflects poor brain development and is usually associated with MENTAL RETARDATION.

Microcephaly

An abnormally small head.

Paine,

R.S.,
Paine retinaculatome
Paine syndrome - males only; onset at birth; physical and mental retardation; seizures. Synonym(s): microcephaly
Paine-Efron syndrome - pain in the back and thigh followed by slowly progressive ataxia. Synonym(s): ataxia-telangiectasia variant

microcephaly (mīˈ·krō·seˑ·f·lē),

n a congenital disorder characterized by an abnormally small head relative to the rest of the body and an underdeveloped brain; may result in mental retardation; caused by a chromosomal anomaly or exposure to trauma or toxic stimulus during prenatal development.

mi·cro·ceph·a·ly

, microcephalia (mī'krō-sef'ă-lē, -sĕ-fālē-ă)
Abnormal smallness of the head; often associated with mental retardation.
[micro- + G. kephalē, head]

microcephaly

small size of the head in relation to the rest of the body.
References in periodicals archive ?
Third, publicly available epidemiologic reports from Brazil recorded microcephaly cases, rather than all forms of APO.
ZODIAC: Long-term follow-up of children born with Zika-related microcephaly
A descriptive study with aggregated data was performed, observing time and geographic distribution of data on the incidence of microcephaly related to Zika virus in Brazil and the data of BPC grants to children of up to 48 months with diagnosis of microcephaly (ICD Q02), assuming municipalities of the country as primary sampling unit.
The effects of Zika during pregnancy can span beyond microcephaly.
The researchers tested the placental tissue of 22 women who either had a miscarriage, still birth, pregnancy termination, or a baby born with microcephaly.
7%) patients with suspected Zika virus disease, congenital microcephaly, or GBS who underwent testing, 19 cases (6.
Using RT-PCR, the researchers were able to isolate Zika virus RNA from 32 (62%) of the case-patients all 8 infants with microcephaly who died, and 24 women.
16,17) An exception is the report of intrauterine West Nile virus transmission occurring at 30th weeks' gestation in which the female infant, delivered at 38 weeks, had ocular and brain damage discovered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but no microcephaly.
By April 2016, the CDC published a statement that Zika infection does cause microcephaly and other birth defects.
If the microcephaly case is confirmed to be linked to Zika, Vietnam would become the second Southeast Asian country after Thailand to report such a case.
She was one of the first researchers to link Zika virus to microcephaly, a now well-known birth defect marked by a small, misshapen head and, sometimes, a forehead that slopes backward.
However, the infection can be passed from mother to child and cause deformities, such as microcephaly.

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