(9) Diminished inspiration in individuals with higher level lesions can lead to microatelectasis
, dyspnea with exertion, and even respiratory insufficiency.
In those with severe respiratory involvement prolonged low lung volumes can result in chronic microatelectasis
, muscular fibrosis, articular contracture, and subsequent chest wall deformity.
This V/Q behavior here observed could be linked to either the presence of unventilated pulmonary areas in the low patterns (i.e., unrecognized pulmonary dysventilation or microatelectasis
) or unperfused areas in the high patterns (i.e., unrecognized pulmonary microembolism).
This mechanism adopted by the scoliotics has both advantages (reduction in inspiratory muscle fatigue) and also fraught with disadvantages (chances of microatelectasis
, decreased alveolar ventilation and increased oxygen cost of breathing).
Respiratory problems include alveolar hypoventilation, microatelectasis
, a restrictive respiratory pattern, a decreased ability to cough and an increased incidence of aspiration.
Ciliary function is depressed and increased thickened mucus can cause inflammation and microatelectasis
. The intubated patient has a reduced ability to cough and clear secretions, therefore regular bronchial suctioning is required to reduce the risk of atelectasis and shunting and to ensure tube patency.
Such an increase in lung elastance during weaning may also be due to microatelectasis
from tidal volume decrease and pulmonary oedema from left ventricular (IV) dysfunction (3).
Intravascular immature lymphoid cells (that correlate with the distinctive hematologic tetrad described previously) were common in HPS and unusual in AIP; furthermore, microatelectasis
, one of the most characteristic features of AIP, was rarely seen in HPS cases.