Wang and his team say they have hit 230 volts, at 15.5 microamperes
per square centimetre, with a power output of 128 milliwatts per cubic centimetre.
Drawing a current of just 23 microamperes
(uA), the NCN1188, with an operating voltage range of 2.7 V to 5.5 V, can be supplied from a single Li-Ion battery or any protected 5 V rail.
In practice, the majority of CES devices have functioned as microcurrent devices, since few patients like the sensation of a full milliampere of stimulation, much less the 60 milliamperes of TENS, and all single- and doubleblind research has been done at subsensation levels of stimulation ranging from around 100 to 200 microamperes
Lyman and his colleagues found the exposure to 50 to 100 microamperes
of electricity -- comparable to that produced by a cardiac pacemaker -- reduced the infectivity of the AIDS virus (HIV) by 50 to 95 percent.
While earlier systems required about 500 microamperes
at five volts now it is less than 100 microamperes
Featuring eXtreme Low Power (XLP) technology for sleep currents down to 20 nA, and a typical active current of 35 microamperes
per MHz, the MCUs extend battery life, while maintaining accurate timing with a RTC and driving a segmented LCD.
The current flowing between the two electrodes is measured in microamperes
by an ohmmeter.
A low quiescent current of 9 microamperes
(mU A) helps reduce power consumption when the devices are idle.
CES uses between 100 microamperes
and four milliamperes typically applied for a duration of 20 minutes to an hour, daily or every other day.
They developed an electrical device, the size of two nickels stuck together, to deliver a constant current of about 20 microamperes
to teeth that need to be shifted.
Additionally, the IC's low operating current of 8 microamperes
typical enables up to 10 years of operation from a single Lithium battery.