A chemical group of drugs derived from xanthine (a purine derivative); members of the group include theophylline, caffeine, and theobromine.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012
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It's because chocolate contains methylxanthines and theobromine which could mess up a canine's insides by causing vomiting, diarrhoea and excessive urination, panting and thirst, an abnormal heartbeat, seizures or even death.
Methylxanthines can be found in coffee, tea, and chocolate and can aggravate mastalgia by enhancing the cyclin adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway.
Tea has a chemical composition of polyphenols, amino acids, enzymes, pigments, carbohydrates, methylxanthines, minerals, and many volatile compounds.
In the past, there have been reports of applicability of methylxanthines and theophylline being used for the cure of episodic apnea in premature infants till they complete a post-conceptional age of 34-35 weeks.1 As demonstrated by a literature review designed for the objective of prophylaxis or treatment of apnea of prematurity, some documentation regarding the use of theophylline or caffeine depicting some degree of altercation regarding the dosage regime2, the appropriate concentration of serum methylxanthine, the compulsion for drug monitoring, and the outcome of drug usage,3 is still present.
"In any form, ranging from one-ounce baking squares to hand-dipped truffles, chocolate contains theobromine and caffeine, both methylxanthines, that can cause stimulation of the central nervous system, an increase in heart rate and tremors."
Methylxanthines, the chemicals in chocolate that are dangerous to pets, are similar to caffeine and more heavily concentrated in the darker varieties.
Methylxanthines are phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, leading to an increase in pituitary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) which is involved in GH release22.
Additional medications include the anti-inflammatory class of drugs methylxanthines (eg, theophylline) and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors (eg, roflumilast).
Methylxanthines and phenolics content extracted during the consumption of mate (Ilex paraguariensis, St.
The beneficial property exhibited from cocoa is because of compounds such as polyphenols, methylxanthines and fatty acids.
The exclusion criteria were receiving therapeutic dosage of vitamin D during the preceding 6 months, respiratory tract infections (either lower or upper, regardless of being viral or bacterial) during 8 weeks prior to the study, administration of bronchodilators (beta-agonists, anticholinergics, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, and methylxanthines) within 7 days before the study, and smoking [less than or equal to] 20 pack-year.