Meso and metathoracic
pleura dark brown with irregular black markings; metathoracic
episternum with a weak lighter stripe.
(2012) suggested the metathoracic
spiracle is likely to play a role in spreading the secretion in terrestrial heteropterans and discussed the problems encountered by half-spherical species.
Legs pale brown, hindfemur dark brown except base and extreme apex paler, base of fore and midfemora brown, hindtibia with subapical dorsal dark spot, not abutting ventral side; tarsomeres 1-3 with ventral palisade setae in all legs; hindtibial comb with two rows of spines, apical row with 9-10 spines, subapical row with 14-15 spines; prothoracic TR 0.95 (0.78-1.00, n = 20), mesothoracic TR 0.77 (0.70-0.86, n = 19), metathoracic
TR 0.71 (0.64-0.79, n = 19); claws curved.
Femora dark red-brown, metathoracic
femora with yellow-brown proximal and distal ends, mixed dark red-brown and pale yellowish setose.
The genus can be recognized mainly by all femora with spine-like antero- and posteroventral setae; setae on fore femur distinctly stronger than those on mid and hind femora; mid and hind legs longer and more slender than fore leg; vein [R.sub.2+3] sinuous just before margin; crossvein r-m at distal three-fourths of cell dm; metastemum bare; and postcoxal metathoracic
bridge completed (Carvalho et al.
Macropterous form: Thorax: Pronotum wider than long, with hispid tubercles, subquadrate, flattened, not declivous; frontal angles rounded, not projecting; humeral angles obtuse, not exposed; collar indistinctly depressed, not separated by a distinct incised line; middle third of pronotal disk with a broad longitudinal sulcus; anterolateral margins obliquely straight, roughly granulate; posterior margin concavely arcuate before base of scutellum; prosternum depressed; meso and metasternum sulcate; anterior lobe of metathoracic
peritreme weakly reniform, posterior lobe subacute, raised; evaporative area short; posterior margin of metapleura with outer third obtusely rounded, and slightly raised.
The male separated pieces of dung that the female reshaped, or that the male itself transformed into irregular balls, rotating them several times between his meso- and metathoracic
In general the length of the antenna wings meso and metathoracic
femurs and tibias of the males were longer than those of the females.
coxa with a single lateral macroseta; metathoracic
femora uniformly dark red-brown to black (proximal or distal end may be slightly paler); tibia 1 without an apical spur; alula and pulvilli present.