This paper focuses on metaphor, but it observes that another figure of speech, metonymy, has always had a place in museums, but has not been appreciated as such in critical analysis.
The suspicion with which Enlightenment philosophers regarded metaphor (Goatly 2007: 30), for being primarily emotive rather than cognitive, and for "feeling that it confused thinking" (Goatly 2007: 14), points to the enduring power of this figure of speech.
Metaphor and metonymy often interplay (Ruiz de Mendoza and Diez 2003).
The issue of cross-cultural variation in metaphor has raised great interest.
advertising can positively impact marketing by altering consumer beliefs (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2009), increasing both their cognitive and affective elaborations (Kim et al., 2012), improving their motivation to process (Chang & Yen, 2013), and enhancing their product expectation (Kronrod & Danziger, 2013).
One of the characteristics of metaphorical frames that appears to influence which underlying mechanism these frames are processed through is the novelty of the metaphor
that is used to frame (e.g., Bowdle & Gentner, 2005; Lai, Curran, & Menn, 2009).
Overall, Crespo-Fernandez's book is an interesting contribution to the field of linguistic taboo and conceptual metaphor
and has insightful reflections at the semantic, pragmatic and cultural levels.
At the heart of the transmission model is a conceptual metaphor
that uses technology, that is, communication systems, to explain various aspects of the communication process.
Critique: An absolutely fascinating, informative, unique, and absorbing read from first page to last, "Farnsworth's Classical English Metaphor
" is very highly recommended for the personal reading lists of academics and non-specialist general readers with an interest in the subject of metaphors
, and as a critically essential addition to community and academic library collections.
Since cognitive linguist George Lakoff and philosopher Mark Johnson in 1980 published Metaphors
We Live By, metaphor
analysis has attracted researchers in diverse fields including education.
While Crystal's categorization is very useful from a linguistic semantics standpoint (the focus on a triadic relation among conventionality, language, and to what it refers), from the perspective of linguistic pragmatics (the focus on a polyadic relation among conventionality, speaker, situation, and hearer), however, Stephen Levinson suggests the following "tripartite classification of metaphors
The Book of Job systematically uses spatial metaphors
to "think" about key theological themes, says Joode, such as well-being, ethics, and retribution.