Aluminum is widely found in anti-perspirants and is considered a neurotoxin and metalloestrogen
. (26) It has been found in breast tissue and fluids at higher levels than in blood.
Nickel has been hypothesized to play a role in breast cancer development by acting as a metalloestrogen
, a heavy metal that binds to estrogen receptors, mimicking actions of estrogen (Aquino et al.
Sathiakumar, "Cadmium a metalloestrogen
: Are we convinced?" Journal of Applied Toxicology, vol.
/here is increasing concern that cadmium acts as a metalloestrogen
(Fechner et al.
Dose-and route-dependent hormonal activity of the metalloestrogen
cadmium in the rat uterus.
Recently, it was proposed that cadmium acts as a metalloestrogen
via interactions with estrogen receptor-[alpha] (ER-[alpha]), stimulating downstream estrogen-related processes (Carcia-Morales et al.
The role of cadmium and nickel in estrogen receptor signaling and breast cancer: metalloestrogens
Heavy metals such as tin, aluminum, cadmium, lead, and selenite have a feature of potential endocrine disruptor and they are known as metalloestrogens
. In addition, some substances may exhibit higher toxicity when they are in nanoparticle size.
new, potent class of environmental estrogens referred to as 'metalloestrogens
.'" They reported that metal anions that include those of arsenic, selenium, vanadium, cobalt, copper, nickel, chromium, lead, mercury, and tin all have effects similar to estradiol and induce the growth and expression of estrogen-regulated genes in breast cancer cells.
: an emerging class of inorganic xenoestrogens with potential to add to the oestrogenic burden of the human breast.
The researchers speculate that parental exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including metalloestrogens
such as methylmercury, might be factors undermining the conception and survival of male children.
Whether avoidable environmental or other factors--such as widespread exposure to metalloestrogens
or other known or suspected endocrine-disrupting materials, changes in parental age, obesity, assisted reproduction, or nutrition--may account for some of these patterns is a matter that merits serious concern.