chirurgus are available, thus hindering the minimum time span after Robertsonian rearrangements that gave rise to the large metacentric
chromosomes, herein referred as a single trait.
C-bands produced by barium hydroxide using propidium iodide were observed in telomeres of the short arms of a large metacentric
chromosome (chromosome pair 3) and in the short arms of a submetacentric chromosome (chromosome pair 5).
In the few species which have been recorded with a [X.sub.1][X.sub.2]Y ([male]) [X.sub.1][X.sub.1][X.sub.2][X.sub.2] ([female]) sex-chromosome determining mechanism, a second centric fusion took place between the neo-Y and an acrocentric autosome Bl (of the B1B2 autosomic pair from the standard karyotype) of a B1B2 autosome pair; this occurred in such a way that the Y turned metacentric
, while the unfused B2 autosome behaved as an acrocentric [X.sub.2], as observed in D.
Also, the common occurrence of an interstitial segment in the long arm of a medium-sized metacentric
pair, being more evident in some chromosomes than in others, is a characteristic that has not been observed in other piranha genera and that has been suggested as a probable sinapomorphy in the genus Serrasalmus.
This is caused by an association between areas of oak forest and local populations with high frequencies of metacentric
chromosomes (i.e., F5-like, see [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 8 OMITTED]).
In metaphases submitted to fluorochrome staining 2 common CMA3 markings were observed in the pericentromeric regions of a metacentric
pairs, in each of the observed karyotypes.
cornutus comprised 16 pairs of metacentric
chromosomes and 2 pairs of metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes.
Chromosome analysis of Giemsa-stained preparations showed a karyotype 2n=40 (n=10 individuals) with 16 pairs of metacentric
biarmed chromosomes and four pairs of submetacentrics.
([dagger]) Fundamental Number estimated as two for metacentric
and submetacentric chromosome, and one for subtelocentric and telocentric chromosome.
This increase in 2n, which is presumably occurred as a result of Robertsonian fission, i.e., metacentric
fission, could be explained in terms of speciation and adaptation to environmental conditions, particularity the aridity and relatively high temperature characterizing El-Hammam region (Shahin et al., 2018).
As per the boats float (z [approximately equal to] 0) and they are lengthy and laterally metacentric
([phi] = [theta] = [phi] = [theta] [approximately equal to] 0), the heave, roll, and pitch dynamics are discarded.
But these results need to be confirmed and verified in a large metacentric