Additionally, activation of glutamate metabotropic receptors
and neurotrophin receptors, such as Trk, also induces activation of PKC [right arrow] MEK [right arrow] MAPK pathways [83, 84].
It functions by binding to receptors on nerve and effector cells that gate ions direcT1y, through channel pores in the receptor (ionotropic glutamate receptors, iGluRs; see Dingledine et al., 1999, for a review), or indirecT1y, through a series of intracellular metabolic steps (metabotropic receptors
, mGluRs; see Pin and Duvoisin, 1995, for a review).
 provided very powerful evidence in vitro, ex vivo (acute slice preparation), and in vivo for the regulation of ATP-induced microglial chemotaxis by the P2Y12 metabotropic receptor
as branch extension or migration-towards purinergic sources was abolished or significantly delayed in P2Y12 knockout microglia.
Glutamate modulates ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and [alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and a family of nonionic metabotropic receptors
, or mGluRs.
[GABA.sub.B] receptors are G protein-coupled metabotropic receptors
which are widely distributed in the central nervous system, especially in the spinal cord dorsal horn .
Twenty chapters are divided into four parts: neurons: excitable and secretory cells that establish synapses; ionotropic and metabotropic receptors
in synaptic transmission; somato-dendritic processing and plasticity of postsynaptic potentials; the hippocampal network.
This molecule is able to activate a family of metabotropic receptors
([mu]-, [delta]-, and [kappa]-type opioid receptors).
Two classes of glutamate receptors exist: ionotropic receptors (iGluRs), and metabotropic receptors
Ionotropic and metabotropic receptors
, protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and Src contribute to C-fiber-induced ERK activation and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in dorsal horn neurons, leading to central sensitization.
Other receptors, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, also belong to the ion-channel-linked superfamily, and there is a population of metabotropic receptors
, as upon activation they simulate a second messenger transduction system .
The hypothesis that metabotropic receptors
make a greater contribution to the process of learning is compatible with the idea of the more essential role of this type of receptor, compared to ionotropic ones, in the dynamics of nerve component plasticity (Eccles & McGreer, 1979).
generally produce slower and longer-lasting reactions at the synapse that have modulatory effects rather than generate new nerve signals.