metabolic syndrome


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Related to metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance

metabolic

 [met″ah-bol´ik]
pertaining to or of the nature of metabolism.
metabolic disease a disease caused by some defect in the chemical reactions of the cells of the body.
metabolic syndrome a combination including at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low level of high-density lipoproteins, hypertension, and high fasting plasma glucose level. It is associated with an increased risk for development of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

a group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is defined as the presence of any three of the following: 1) increased waist circumference (>102 cm for men, >88 cm for women), 2) elevated triglycerides >150 mg/dL, 3) low HDL cholesterol (less than 40 mg/dL for men, less than 50 mg/dL for women), 4) hypertension (systolic BP >130 and/or diastolic >85) or antihypertensive medication use, 5) impaired fasting glucose (>110 mg/dL).

The metabolic syndrome comprises several abnormalities, each an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which have been associated on the premise of a unitary cause. The components of the syndrome are (1) insulin resistance manifested by fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dL (6.11 mmol/L) or higher, impaired glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia (2) central obesity, defined as a waist circumference over 40 inches (102 cm) in men and over 35 inches (89 cm) in women; (3) systemic hypertension (systolic blood pressure over 130, diastolic pressure over 85); (4) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL (1.03 mmol/L) in men and less than 50 mg/dL (1.29 mmol/L) in women; and (5) triglyceride 150 mg/dL (1.69 mmol/L) or more. For both men and women with all five of these stigmata, the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke are more than twice those of the general population. Additional features of the syndrome sometimes noted are high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, hyperuricemia, ovarian hyperproduction of androgen, and hypercoagulability of the blood. When the syndrome is defined as the presence of at least 3 of the 5 numbered disorders above, it is estimated to affect 23% of adults in the U.S. (approximately 47 million persons), including 10-15 million with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). It is particularly prevalent among non white populations in both developing and industrialized nations, and in those populations its prevalence is disproportionately high among children. The basis for the syndrome is genetic, and insulin resistance is considered the primary metabolic defect. There is considerable overlap between genetic pools of those with metabolic syndrome and of those with type 2 DM. Adoption of a sedentary lifestyle and development of obesity are believed to promote progression toward the fully developed syndrome and toward DM. The treatment of metabolic syndrome, directed at prevention of cardiovascular disease and of progression to type 2 DM, consists of aggressive efforts to identify patients so affected and to correct all metabolic abnormalities identified. Weight control by adoption of a low-calorie, low-cholesterol diet and regular aerobic exercise is essential. Hypertension and lipid abnormalities are corrected with pharmacologic agents.

metabolic syndrome

n.
A combination of metabolic abnormalities that sometimes accompany abdominal obesity, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, elevated fasting blood levels of glucose, and elevated blood pressure, and are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

metabolic syndrome

A condition characterised by dysregulation of serum glucose, insulin resistance, a predisposition to type-2 diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, decreased HDL-C, abdominal obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Management
Diet, exercise.

metabolic syndrome

Vascular disease A clustering of medical conditions–ASHD, type 2 DM, HTN, hyperlipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, often linked to claudication

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
A group of health risks that increase the chances of developing heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The criteria for this syndrome are any 3 of these 5 risk factors: (1) BP > 130/80 mmHg; (2) abdominal obesity (men > 40 inches and women > 35 inches); (3) triglycerides > 150 mg/dL; (4) HDL cholesterol for men < 40 mg/dL and women < 50 mg/dL; and (5) fasting glucose > 110mg/dL.
Synonym(s): insulin-resistance syndrome, multiple metabolic syndrome, syndrome X.

metabolic syndrome

A dangerous development in obese people that features low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised triglycerides, glucose intolerance with insulin resistance and raised blood pressure. The syndrome seriously increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. An amendment to the definition published in late 2005 stresses the importance of a waist circumference of more than 94 cm in men or 80 cm in women and blood pressures of greater than 130/85. The metabolic syndrome is common in Western populations with a high prevalence of obesity. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2003 that 24 per cent of the US adult population had the metabolic syndrome. The syndrome is transmitted through the mother and there are recent indications that it is the result of a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA.

Metabolic syndrome

A group of risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. It includes abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome is sometimes called the insulin resistance syndrome.
Mentioned in: Insulin Resistance

met·a·bol·ic syn·drome

(met'ă-bol'ik sin'drōm)
Group of metabolic risk factors linked to insulin resistance and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
References in periodicals archive ?
This study was conducted in hundred patients who presented with either CAD or CVA to know the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in them as per NCEP: ATP III 2001 criteria which was revised in 2005.
rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.8 A direct correlation between severity of psoriasis and the prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia and hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in psoriatic patients, suggesting that skin changes, caused by psoriasis, have a direct role in determining these risk factors.9 Other studies also reveal high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in psoriatic patients.6
The high-fat diet is linked to an increase in obesity and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.
The metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic abnormalities with abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance as its central components, affects approximately 25% of the American adult population10 and is associated with an increased risk of CVD and type-2 diabetes11.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the general Japanese population in 2000.
The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in different populations has been investigated.
Cordes's report was one of several at the meeting sponsored by the European Psychiatric Association that examined different facets of the complex links that tie schizophrenia to metabolic syndrome, an association that already had lots of evidence, including a recent meta-analysis (Schizophr Bull.
The researchers found that a lipoprotein in the liver that secretes vitamin E into the bloodstream and another lipoprotein generated by the small intestine contained lower levels of vitamin E in participants with metabolic syndrome compared to healthy subjects.
Conclusion: Our results suggest that higher levels of IL-6 and malondialdehyde may cause insulin resistance and metabolic disorders in all subjects with metabolic syndrome. Malondialdehyde level shows strong association with some metabolic syndrome components.
Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetic patients and is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in such patients.
The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a clustering of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure (BP), and increased fasting plasma glucose (FPG).