Thus, HNF actively participate in the transfer of carbon and energy to higher trophic levels since they are consumed by ciliates (BERNINGER et al., 1993; HWANG; HEATH, 1997) and certain mesoplankton
(TANDOLEKE et al., 2004; VARGAS et al., 2008).
On the other hand, leatherback turtle is a predator of mesoplankton
This led the authors to conclude that, "Model shifts between an anchovy 'regime' (1980's) and the possible move towards a sardine 'regime (1990's) in the southern Benguela ecosystem are likely to have been caused by changes in the availability of mesoplankton
to anchovy and sardine" (Shannon et al., 2004b).
grazers such as small copepods or cladocerans (Sherr et
Brief seasonal periods of mesoplankton
availability are paradoxical considering the filter feeding habits of sponges.