Persistent near-bottom aggregations of mesopelagic
animals along the North Carolina and Virginia continental slopes.
The combined effects of coastline and bathymetry on the upwelling circulation may generate a spatially structured coastal habitat where three types (coastal, mesopelagic
and bathypelagic) of fish larval assemblages can coexist.
Paedomorphosis (juvenile features retained in adults) is a mechanism of evolutionary change sometimes seen as simplification of the body, a feature common in mesopelagic
animals (Herring, 2002) and may be the case with C.
fish larval assemblages during El Nino-southern oscillation (1997-2001) in the southern part of the California Current.
Because of its low light levels and stable cold temperatures, the mesopelagic
is similar in many ways to shallower benthic habitats of polar oceans, a region where some crustacean groups, most notably the amphipods, are quite successful (reviewed in Arntz et al., 1994).
In groups such Eastern Pacific bonito, mesopelagic
fish and demersal fish, the main source of mortality is predation (M2) exceeding 90%; the coefficient of other mortalities (M0) is important in sardine and swordfish, also about 90%.
The impacts of El Nino events on populations of mesopelagic
The effects are modeled with Monte Carlo methods and image transfer theory, using data collected from water types ranging from shallow coastal water to the deep mesopelagic
zone (800 m).
Assemblages of vertical migratory mesopelagic
fish in the transitional region of the western North Pacific.
Myctophids are typically pelagic fish of the open ocean (Hartel & Craddock, 2002) and, together with members of Sternoptychidae, Gonostomatidae, Chauliodontidae and the suborder Stomiatoidei, represent the characteristic families in mesopelagic
depths (Haedrich, 1997).
fishes spend most of their lives in a habitat lacking structure and have not been reported to seek structured habitats.