mesenteric venous thrombosis


Also found in: Acronyms.

mesenteric venous thrombosis

A form of mesenteric ischaemia caused by venous thrombosis, which has a high (±30%) mortality rate due to the delay in diagnosis.
 
Clinical findings
Vague abdominal discomfort that evolves over 7–10 days; abdominal distension and guaiac-positive stool.

Aetiology
Idiopathic (up to 50%), hypercoagulability (e.g., polycythemia vera), protein C and S deficiencies, intra-abdominal sepsis, systemic infection and a variety other conditions, including: portal hypertension, perforated viscus, blunt abdominal trauma, malignancy, prior abdominal surgery (open or laparoscopic), pancreatitis, smoking, oral contraceptive use, splenectomy, colectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Imaging
• CT (technique of choice)—Enlarged mesenteric or portal vein with sharp venous wall definition and low density within the vein.
• Arteriogram—Vasospasm, contrast in bowel lumen, non-visualised venous system, reflux of contrast into aorta, absent flow to necrotic bowel areas.

Lab
Cytology and lab data are completely ineffective, nonspecific or too late to help.

Management
Immediate bowel resection and maintain a low threshold for second-look laparotomy; long-term anticoagulation.

mesenteric venous thrombosis

Vascular disease A blood clot occluding the mesenteric vein, a major vein located in the tissue that connects the intestine to the posterior abdominal wall
References in periodicals archive ?
Multidisciplinary stepwise management strategy for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis: an intestinal stroke center experience.
Shunt occlusion and acute portal, splenic, and mesenteric venous thrombosis complicating placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.
Mesenteric venous thrombosis in the setting of intra-abdominal infection can be difficult to diagnose because of nonspecific nature of signs and symptoms as elucidated in our patient.
Duration of anticoagulation in mesenteric venous thrombosis provoked by diverticulitis is 6 months [5, 7].
It is important to distinguish MIVOD from mesenteric venous thrombosis, as these patients may be put on anticoagulant therapy.
The woman, 19 then, was two months pregnant but had to terminate the foetus on account of mesenteric venous thrombosis, a clot that blocks blood flow in a mesenteric vein (one of two veins through which blood leaves the intestine).
There are four common causes of AMI: acute embolism to the superior mesenteric artery, acute thrombosis of an atherosclerotic plaque with previous partial occlusion, splanchnic vasoconstriction leading to low flow and regional ischemia that is called nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI), and mesenteric venous thrombosis [8].
Portal-splenic- mesenteric venous thrombosis secondary to a mutation of the prothrombin gene [in Spanish].
Mesenteric venous thrombosis is an uncommon entity.
Liberal use of CECT abdomen to evaluate such cases of conundrum can promptly diagnose Acute Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis, which relatively carries a better prognosis.
INTRODUCTION: Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare and life threatening condition which accounts for less than 1 in 1000 laparotomies for acute abdomen.