mental disorder

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Related to mental disease: schizophrenia, depression

mental

 [men´tal]
1. pertaining to the mind.
2. pertaining to the chin.
mental disorder any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by distressing symptoms, significant impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of death, pain, or other disability. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. The concept does not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned responses to particular events.
mental retardation less than average general intellectual functioning that brings with it some degree of impaired adaptation in learning, social adjustment, or maturation, or in all three areas; it is now classified as a developmental disability.

Mental retardation is a relative term. Its meaning depends on what society demands of the individual in learning, skills, and social responsibility. Many people who are considered developmentally challenged in the complex modern world would get along normally in a simpler society.

Diagnosis: There is no absolute measurement for retardation. At one time the different types were classified only according to the apparent severity of the retardation. Since the most practical standard was intelligence, the degree of retardation was based on the score of the patient on intelligence tests such as the intelligence quotient (IQ). The average person is considered to have an IQ of between 90 and 110, and those who score below 70 are considered mentally retarded.

In the past, the different groupings were classified in terms such as feebleminded, idiot, imbecile, and moron. Today, most health care providers use the following classifications: for IQ's from 50 to 70, mild; 35 to 50, moderate; 20 to 35, severe; under 20, profound. Whatever classifications are used, it is agreed that IQ measurements are only one part of the factors to be considered in determining mental retardation. Others, such as the patient's adaptability to surroundings, the services and training available, and the amount of control shown over his or her emotions, are also very important.

About 85 per cent of patients considered mentally retarded are in the least severe, or mild, group. Those in this group do not usually have obvious physical defects and thus are not always easy to identify as mentally retarded while they are still infants. Sometimes such a child's mental defects do not show up until the time of entering school, when the child has difficulty learning and keeping up with others in the same age group. Many persons who are in the mild category, as adults can find employment or a place in society suitable to their abilities, so that they are no longer identified as mentally retarded.

Cause: The cause of mental retardation is often unidentifiable; known ones are classified as either genetic or acquired. Genetic conditions include chromosomal abnormalities such as down syndrome and klinefelter's syndrome and errors of metabolism such as phenylketonuria, hypothyroidism, and tay-sachs disease. Acquired conditions may be prenatal, perinatal, or postnatal. Prenatal conditions include rubella and other viral infections, toxins, placental insufficiency, and blood type incompatibility. Perinatal causes are anoxia, birth injury, and prematurity. Postnatal causes may include infections, poisons, poor nutrition, trauma, and sociocultural factors such as deprivation.

Many conditions that can cause severe retardation can be diagnosed during pregnancy, and in some cases proper treatment can lessen or even prevent retardation. Proper care for the mother during pregnancy and for the baby in the first months of life is also important.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

men·tal dis·or·der

a psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern that is associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

mental disorder

n.
Any of various disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or autism spectrum disorder, characterized by a distressing or disabling impairment of an individual's cognitive, emotional, or social functioning.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

mental disorder

A clinically significant behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual and is associated with present distress (e.g., a painful symptom) or disability (i.e., impairment in one or more important areas of functioning), or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability or an important loss of freedom. This syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event (for example, the death of a loved one).
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

mental disorder

Mental illness Psychology '…a clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs in an individual.associated with present distress–eg, a painful Sx or disability–ie, impairment in one or more important areas of functioning or with significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or an important loss of freedom…this syndrome or pattern must not be merely an expectable and culturally sanctioned response to a particular event, for example, the death of a loved one'
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
A psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with either subjective distress or objective impairment.
See also: mental illness, behavior disorder
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

men·tal dis·or·der

(men'tăl dis-ōr'dĕr)
Psychological syndrome or behavioral pattern associated with subjective distress and/or objective impairment.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about mental disorder

Q. Regarding mental illness My mom is suffering from mental illness. As she remains absent minded through out the day, moreover remains silent (talkless), suffering with idiot ideas. Pls advise me how may i resolve this prob. She is sufferring from last 4 years....!!! and now it has increased. We are also under supervision of phycologist but he used to kept her on sleep as alternative. I need yr some corrective suggestion & help. Regards Parth

A. Parth- Dan could be right, there might be another diagnosis for your mother. it sounds like late stages of Parkinson's, but that would be hard to miss due to a very clear first stages.. if Schizophrenia was diagnosed properly - you should know that there are cases of recovery but it's about 15%. so it's not much, but a dual treatment can improve her state. is she taking any medication?

Q. Everyone on my mother's side has mental illness and addictions. How do you convince someone they need help? It seems to be an inherited bi-polar disorder. An uncle shot his wife. A brother shot his wife and killed himself. My son has been diagnosed as bi-polar. How do I convince or get help for other family members who are in denial?

A. Thank you so much for your answer; unfortunately the link didn't work. I'll try to get there though. I've been researching and I think it's going to be bi-polar spectrum disorder. Are there any forums exclusively for that?

Q. How do you know the difference if the child has ADHD or have other mental disorders? The child has been of ADHD medication for four years give or take a few months. The problems are getting gradually worse. She has no patience with anything, can’t sit still. She is ten years old but she acts like she is 6.

A. Sometimes, seasonal allergies can intensify behavior. I have a child with adhd who changes dramatically around fall and spring and it takes a couple of months for her to return to a lower level of adhd-ness. I recently took her to an allergist and found out she's allergic to weeds (fall) and a number of trees (spring).

More discussions about mental disorder
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References in periodicals archive ?
fourth of February suffered from a severe mental disease or defect?
If we accept the idea that the diagnoses of mental illnesses refer to real diseases, we are compelled to accept them as diagnoses on a par with those of bodily diseases, albeit the criterion for what counts as a mental disease is completely different from what counts as a bodily disease.
In a study slated for publication in an upcoming JOURNAL OF NERVOUS AND MENTAL DISEASE, the researchers show that type IV trajectories in the therapist often coincide with moments when the therapist experiences strong feelings of empathy for the patient.
Under psychoanalytic theory, "the product of mental disease or defect" can be extended to virtually every criminal act.
The Jews could not escape their "Otherness." They were considered to have a higher rate of mental illness, which, unfortunately, Efron explains by adopting uncritically the nineteenth-century neurologist George Beard's long-since discarded theory of the mental disease of "neurasthenia," a disease supposedly brought about by modern life.
His 1994 bestseller, A Dose of Sanity: Mind, Medicine and Misdiagnosis, was his first foray into the cultural construction of mental disease, and his experience in the field is obvious from his writing, which is filled with anecdotes and case studies.
They have to decide if by reason of mental disease the accused knew at the time of the killing the nature and quality of the act.
Based on the information, researchers could make a relatively accurate prediction of the mental disease.
Police said on Tuesday that Samina Yasmeen (40) w/o Ghareeb Alam, resident of Raza Abad was suffering from mental disease, due to which, she swallowed poisonous pills.
There may be some MPs who privately suffer from the irrational mental disease of anti-Semitism but opposition to actions by the State of Israel is not anti-Semitism and I cannot believe it is right to label it as such or to resign from the Labour party for that reason.
These are medicines that are prescribed to a patient by a doctor to treat or cure a health condition such as pain, mental disease, diabetes, cancer, or common infections.