Nabil, is said to have permitted a menstruant to carry the codex by a strap, a point that appears to go against his opinion as detailed by Ibn Jurayj: Ibn Abi Shayba (kitab al-salat), 2: 142; Ibn Abi Dawud, 2: 633.
161/778), both of Kufa, (53) are said to have only allowed people in a state of major impurity--infidels (in this case a Zoroastrian) and menstruants, respectively--to carry the mushaf by a strap (ilaqa).
According to Ibn Jurayj, although 'Ata' preferred not to touch either dirhams or dinars without having done the minor ablution, and discouraged menstruants and those in a state of major impurity from doing so, he also recognized the necessity of people to use coins, as they were made to be circulated.
183) The restrictions on menstruants that surfaced first within Christianity in the canonical letters of Dionysius of Alexandria (184) in the mid-third century became canon law for the Byzantine Church in 692 through the Council in Trullo, (185) which adopted wholesale the canonical writings of a dozen bishops, including Dionysius and his later successor, Timothy, who similarly restricted menstruous women from receiving the Eucharist or even entering the church.
Except for a longstanding, very restrictive tradition in Alexandria and a caution in the fifth-century Testamentum Domini, of Syrian provenance, against ordained Widows' approaching the altar during their menses, there is no indication of liturgical restrictions on menstruants in the Byzantine Church prior to the ninth century.
To this end, statements about menstruants in this body of writings enable her "to make some of the rabbinic discussions accessible to students and scholars of feminist criticism, and to students of the complex interaction between cultural groups in late antiquity as well as scholars of rabbinic texts" (13).
thus combines her mastery of traditional rabbinic lore with Western Jewish scholarship and feminist perspectives in order to discern feminist or gynacocentric relevance in ancient rabbinic discussions about menstruants.
Perez's text indicates that the crucial issue with which he is dealing is the intention of the parties, rather than the physical definitions of the offenses of sexual relations with a menstruant
This is partly due to what we now recognize as the broader scope of the legal section, encompassing laws regarding priests, scale disease, and zab, menstruant
and parturient women, marriage and sotah, harvest and tithes, and impurity and purification.
At least in Christ's account this feminine connectedness with nature is not only because of biology--women's 'unique position as menstruants
, birthgivers'--but also because women 'have traditionally cared for the young and the dying' (77).