As a result, it has been suspected that the hormone changes of the menopause transition
could cause fluctuations in a woman's blood sugar levels, putting her at greater risk of diabetes.
Although a menopause-specific mood disorder scale does not yet exist, several general validated screening measures, such as the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, or PHQ-9, can be used for categorical determination of mood disorder diagnoses during the menopause transition
: Annual changes in serum hormonal patterns over the menstrual cycle in women during a nine-year period prior to menopause.
"Epidemiologic findings, animal data, and clinical observations have shed some light into plausible mechanistic hypotheses on why some, but not all, women may be particularly sensitive to changes in the hormonal milieu experienced premenstrually, during the postpartum period or during the menopause transition
," Pauline M.
The menopause transition
begins around age 47 and lasts 4 to 7 years.
The domino hypothesis, the theory that hot flashes can lead to sleep disruption that then leads to depressive symptoms of the menopause transition
, was examined in a literature review.
This was associated with the menopause transition
itself, higher the postmenopausal age more is the sleep impairment, lesser the parity more is the sleep impairment.
"Our findings suggest lifelong hormonal processes, not just short-term fluctuations during the menopause transition
, may be associated with verbal memory, consistent with evidence from a variety of neurobiological studies; mechanisms are likely to involve estrogen receptor ?
Women in the early menopause transition
experienced significant mood benefits, but women in the late menopause transition
and those who were postmenopausal did not.
The women's diabetes risk was also higher when hot flashes were accompanied by night sweats, but only if the hot flashes started during the later portion of the menopause transition
- New research from the Chapel Hill, North Carolina-based professional institution UNC School of Medicine has shown that hormone replacement therapy during the menopause transition
, when the likelihood that a woman will develop clinically significant depressive symptoms increases 2 to 4 times, can prevent the onset of depression, particularly in certain women, UNC researchers said.