Known causes include acoustic or physical trauma (including penetrating trauma), infection (tympanogenic or meningogenic
labyrinthitis), surgical iatrogenic injury, vestibular schwannoma, autoimmune disorders, and sudden attacks of Meniere disease.
The infection can reach the inner ear via a tympanogenic (most common), meningogenic, or hematogenic route.
Cephalosporins are considered to be the first-line antibiotic agents for the treatment and prevention of both meningogenic labyrinthitis and labyrinthitis associated with acute or chronic otitis media.
Bacterial meningitis is the most common cause of meningogenic