"Results from the current study suggest that girls who experienced earlier menarche
continued to report elevated psychopathology in early to middle adulthood even after accounting for demographic and contextual variables commonly associated with vulnerability for mental health.
Villamor, "Trends and correlates of age at menarche
in Colombia: results from a nationally representative survey," Economics & Human Biology, vol.
In the next step, multivariate adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between OAG and associated factors, adjusting for age and all other confounders (DM, HTN, myopia, BMI, OC, and HRT in Model I; addition of early menopause, age at menarche
, lactation, and parity in Model II).
Assessment of age, menarche
age, last day of menstruation, reproductive period length, parity, and menstruation according to BPE grades are summarized in Table 2.
Socio-demographic data on adolescents (skin color, religion and schooling gap) and reproductive realm (age at menarche
, age at first sexual intercourse, type of partnership in first sexual intercourse, reason for first sexual intercourse, contraception in the first sexual intercourse and partner's age).
Majority of the respondents (70.7%) stated that they had knowledge about menstruation before menarche
and mother (63.4%) was the prime source of information.
The age at menarche
was obtained by self-report if the subject was post-menarcheal at the time of the interview.
Age (years)###13.03 +- 1.17###12.35 +- 0.95###0.607###1.835###1.102 3.055###0.020*
Major finding: Girls with first menarche
before age 12 years with the least parental supervision have alcohol abuse rates three times higher than those with the most supervision.
"Understanding factors that lead to early menarche
, especially preventable ones, are important given these long term health implications and increased cancer risk for women."
Age at menarche
was also inquired in the sociodemographic form.
Lead researcher John Perry, a senior scientist at the University of Cambridge MRC epidemiology unit in the United Kingdom, said, "We hope that with the help of future studies, this will in turn lead to better understanding of the underlying biology behind diseases such as type 2 diabetes and breast cancer." The role of estrogen levels in the development of the diseases were previously evaluated, but a clear link between menarche
and health conditions later in life could not be established.