While fermented cheeses are the best dietary source of menaquinones
in the West, most will not be able to consume enough to obtain optimal amounts of vitamin K2, nor is cheese a practical source for extracting the menaquinones
," added Dr.
Vermeer, "Determination of Phylloquinone and Menaquinones
in Food: Effect of Food Matrix on Circulating Vitamin K Concentrations," Haemostasis 30, 298-307 (2000).
1997) Incorporation of 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol, a putative isoprenoid precursor in the mevalonate-independent pathway, into ubiquinone and menaquinone
of Escherichia coli.
It is, however, vitamin K2, the menaquinones
, that are responsible for the cardiovascular benefits, and not vitamin K1.
Dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones
intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes.
The majority of studies use menaquinone
, which is approximately 400-fold higher than dietary recommendations for vitamin K1.
It occurs in nature in two primary forms: K1 or phylloquinone and K2 or menaquinone
OBJECTIVES: To provide a rational basis for recommended daily allowances (RDA) of dietary phylloquinone (vitamin K1) and menaquinone
(vitamin K2) intake that adequately supply extrahepatic (notably vascular) tissue requirements.
In 2012 NattoPharma patents in US and Canada were granted covering the use of menaquinone
(vitamin K2) in foods and supplements for maintaining, optimizing, strengthening or promoting cardiovascular health.
We observed a nonsignificant inverse association between total prostate cancer and total menaquinone
intake [multivariate relative risk (highest compared with lowest quartile): 0.
MK-4 is just one of many menaquinones
that collectively make up vitamin K2.
8220;The role of menaquinones
(vitamin K₂) in human health” Journal of Nutrition 110(8):1357-68 (2013).