Vermeer, "The role of menaquinones
(vitamin K2) in human health," British Journal of Nutrition, vol.
 2015 3 years 180 [micro]g menaquinone
Vossen et al.
Vitamin K Vitamin K is a Required for the (naphthoquinone) quinone compound in formation of the human body in a prothrombin (an storage form as essential component menaquinone
(MK); of blood clotting).
 Nonstandard abbreviations: SPE, solid-phase extraction; CRP, C-reactive protein; EQA, External Quality Assurance; MK6, menaquinone
The vitamin exists in two forms in nature: phylloquinone (K1), found in green vegetables, and menaquinone
, ([K.sub.2]), produced by microbes in the lower digestive tract of animals, including pigs and humans.
Vitamin K comprises three main forms: vitamin K1 or phylloquinone which is found in green plants; vitamin K2 or the menaquinone
family which is synthesised by bacteria in the large intes tine; and vitamin K3 or menadione which is a synthetic, water-soluble form that has been utilised in animal feeds.
Vitamin K exists as vitamin Kl (phylloquinone), which is abundant in many vegetables; vitamin K2 (menaquinone
), which the body produces in the digestive tract and which is provided by some animal products; and vitamin K3, the synthetic form known as menadione.
Endogenously it can be converted to K2 (menaquinone
The first and only vitamin K2 to deliver a gamut of menaquinone
isomers, MenaQ7 Full Spectrum is naturally fermented using chickpea protein, offering an all-trans vitamin K2 that is free from gluten, soy and all known allergens, and is suitable for vegans and vegetarians.
Second, that halocyanin carries electrons from complex III to complex IV rather than menaquinone
. Finally, that ATP synthase has a stoichiometry of 10 protons per ATP, which is much higher than in most organisms.
Geleijnse et al., “Dietary intake of menaquinone
is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study” Journal of Nutrition 134(11):3100-3105 (2004).
Kroppenstedt, "Fatty acid and menaquinone
analysis of actinomycetes and related organisms," in Chemical Methods in Bacterial Systematics, M.